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Full text of "Knight Letter No. 79"



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KNIGHT LETTER 



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77^ Lewis Carroll Society of North America 




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Winter 2007 



Volume II Issue 9 



Number 79 




Knight Letter is the official magazine of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. 

It is published twice a year and is distributed free to all members. 

Editorial correspondence should be sent to the Editor in Chief 

at andrewsellon@optonline.net. 

Submissions 

Submissions for The Rectory Umbrella should be sent to 

imholtz99@atlantech.net 

Submissions for Mischmasch should be sent to 

sarah@voraciousreader.com or to ray@ganymede.org 

Submissions for All Must Have Prizes should be sent to 

joelbirenbaum@comcast.net 

© 2008 The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 

ISSN 0193-886X 

Andrew Sellon, Editor in Chief 

August 6f Clare Imholtz, Editors, The Rectory Umbrella 

Sarah Adams & Ray Kiddy, Editors, Mischmasch 

Mark Burstein, Production Editor 

Andrew H. Ogus, Designer 

The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 

President: 
Andrew Sellon, andrewsellon@optonline.net 

Vice-President: 
Cindy Watter, hedgehogccw@sbcglobal.net 

Secretary: 
Clare Imholtz, imholtz99@atlantech.net 

www. Le wisCarroll. org 

Annual membership dues are U.S. $35 (regular), 

$50 (international), and $100 (sustaining). 

Subscriptions, correspondence, and inquiries should be addressed to 

Clare Imholtz, LCSNA Secretary 

11935 Beltsville Drive 

Beltsville, MD 20705 

Contributors to This Issue 

Ruth Berman, Sandor Burstein, Angelica Carpenter, Janet Jurist, Stephanie Lovett, 

Blossom Norman, Mark Richards, Irene Rutter, Alan Tannenbaum, 

Cindy Watter, Sue Welsch, Nancy Willard 

On the cover: "Humpty Dumpty," © 2008 Iain McCaig 




&&& 



CONTENTS 



THG RGCTORY UMBRGLLA 

m 

French, Music, and Washing(ton) Extra 

MARK BURSTEIN 



Two Poems 

JACK PRELUTSKY 

5 

Evolution of a Dream-Child: 

Images of Alice and Changing Conceptions of Childhood 

Part V: The Late Nineteen Sixties 

VICTORIA SEARS GOLDMAN 



Flora in the Illustrations of the Alice Books 

ALISON TANNENBAUM 
lO 

Alice in Inania 

JAMILA VERGHESE 

with commentary by sanjay sircar 

13 

To Seek It with Thimbles: Brief Essays on Lewis Carroll 

MATTHEW DEMAKOS 
18 

MISCHMASCH 



LGAVGS FROM THG DGANGRY CARDGN 
23 

JABBGRING AND JAM 
26 

RAVINGS 
28 

NOTGS &£ QUSRISS 

29 

SGRGNDIPITY 
3 1 



In Memoriam: 

Kate Lyon, Marjorie L. Clements 

35 

CARROLLIAN NOTGS 
36 

Sic, Sic, Sic 
The Truth about "Alice" 

C. W. GILES 

A Mathematical Celebration 

FRANCINE F. ABELES 

The Hunting of the Snark: A Stammering Perspective 

ROBERT YATES 

OF BOOKS AND THINGS 
40 

Alice's Misadventures Underground 

RAY KIDDY 

Jabberwocky 

MARK BURSTEIN 

Seeing Redd 

RAY KIDDY 

The Angel and the Jabberwocky Murders 

AUGUST A. IMHOLTZ JR. 

Theatre Reviews 

ALISE G. WAGNER 

R. STEVEN TERRY JR. 

CLARE IMHOLTZ 

ANDREW SELLON 

Oxford Storypods' Audiobook 

ANDREW SELLON 

FROM OUR FAR-FLUNG 

CORRGSPONDGNTS 

46 

Art — Articles — A uctions — Books & Comics — Cyberspace 

Movies & Television — Music — Performing Arts 

Events cir Places — Things 



ALL MUST HAVG PRIZGS 

JOEL BIRENBAUM 

32 




^^^^^hoy, members! Tingle, tingle! Our edito- 
^^^\ rial crew has returned to port with another 
A ^boatload of varied and entertaining essays, 

articles, letters, citations, and more from all corners 
of the globe for your reading enjoyment. It's im- 
possible for me to pick a favorite; trying to choose 
one item from the Table of Contents is like trying to 
choose between rolls of rare silks, each equally lovely 
despite their different lengths and patterns, or be- 
tween variously shaped pieces in a tempting sampler 
of dark, milk, and white chocolates — some definitely 
containing nuts. Happily, you can have them all. This 
cargo hold contains a hull of a lot of good stuff. We 
have Mark Burstein's write-up of the fall meeting in 
Seattle, the penultimate installment in Victoria Sears 
Goldman's examination of Alice illustrations through 
the decades, an intriguing survey of the plant life in 
the two Alice books by Alison Tannenbaum, some en- 
tertaining mini-essays from Matt Demakos, and some 
sublime Carrollian socio-political parodies from India 
byjamila Verghese. This is not to mention all our reg- 



ular sections, which are crammed to the rafters with 
equally rewarding reading. I never cease to wonder 
at the jaw-dropping inanities our crew digs up for the 
Sic, Sic, Sic column — and we're only citing a handful 
of these Carrollian misquotes in each issue. Did you 
know that Alice's older sister was named Loraine? Re- 
grettably, the deep dark woods are full of such non- 
sense. But at least those of us reading this magazine 
know just how rudderless those speakers and writers 
are! With this issue, we are also making sure we leave 
room on the inside cover to reinstate our practice 
of thanking those kind enough to take time out of 
their busy days to submit materials to this magazine. 
Apologies if we left out any names. And to all reading 
this, whether or not your particular submission ends 
up in print here, we very much appreciate each and 
every contribution. The variety of submissions is what 
makes our magazine such fun to assemble and, hope- 
fully, to read in its final form. Set sail, noble reader. 
And enjoy. 

ANDREW SELLON 



■mL 










& 



FRENCH, MUSIC, AND 
WASHING(TON) EXTRA 



MARK BURSTEIN 



Surprisingly pleasant weather and a colorful 
blanket of autumnal foliage set the scene for 
our fall '07 meeting, held in Seattle and en- 
virons over the weekend of October 13. 

First up was a very special Maxine Schaefer Read- 
ing on Friday. The Juanita Elementary School in 
nearby Kirkland is a recently rebuilt facility, with up- 
to-the-minute equipment in a setting with much natu- 
ral light. Carol McCaig, whose brother-in-law Iain was 
a featured speaker at our meeting, had arranged for a 
session with several fifth-grade classes. 

In the morning, Iain gave the kids a short ret- 
rospective of his career (below), followed by a talk 
about concept art and then a drawing lesson encour- 
aging them to use their own imaginations, taking 
the Hatter and Hare as subject matter. After lunch, 
the class resumed with a spirited reading of the "Tea 
Party" chapter, with sixteen-year-old Bethany McCaig 
(Carol's daughter) reading Alice; Iain the narrator; 
Colin (Iain's brother) the March Hare; Paul Luczak, 
the school's principal (!), the Hatter; and the present 
writer as the Dormouse [photo on page 4] . A fine time 
was had by all; the children then happily received 
their books and continued to work on their art. We 
(the royal "we" includes the three other Society mem- 
bers present) learned much about what stands be- 
tween any of us and a realized drawing, mostly our 
own attitude. 



Over the next several weeks, after reading the 
book, the kids presented their ideas of the setting, 
places of interest, and places of danger in the story, 
making connections across texts — including the par- 
allel between the characters of the Gryphon and Ru- 
beus Hagrid in the Harry Potterbooks. To the question 
"Is Alice good at making decisions?" for example, one 
student replied, "Yes. It was a good decision to make 
friends with all the animals in the rabbit hole. If she 
didn't make friends, they might have eaten her." 

The next day, Rem Koolhaas' Seattle Public Li- 
brary was the site of the meeting proper. Like Alice 
shrunk to a microscopic size on a Fantastic Voyage 
through an artery, we First emerged from a vibrant 
neon chartreuse elevator into a throbbing, blood-red 
hallway, giving us but a glimpse into the many won- 
ders we would experience a bit later on our tour. 

Vice President Cindy Watter began the session 
with thanks to the meeting's many organizers and to 
the mayor's office, which had named us in a procla- 
mation designating October 8-14 "Book Collecting 
Week" (the Seattle Antiquarian Book Fair and a num- 
ber of other bibliophilic events were taking place the 
same weekend). 

Our first speaker was Tommy Kovac, in a talk 
entitled "Wonderland: Disney Gets Edgy with Slave 
Labor Graphics." Tommy, whose present dayjob is 




s 

Final panel from "Antipathies" ©2000 Tommy Kovac 



^\MI^ u .Mk l - 



as a "library technician" for a prep school, began his 
self-taught art career as writer/illustrator for eerie, 
edgy (as he called them, "degenerate"), macabre 
black-and-white gothic alt-culture comics, includ- 
ing such titles as Skelebunnies, Autumn, and Stitch. He 
showed us some examples from this work, highlight- 
ing the story "Antipathies" in Skelebunnies #1, a Won- 
derland-inspired sequence with lines such as "I'm the 
March Whore. Wanna gyre and gimble in my wabe?" 1 

He is still bemused that the Disney company chose 
him, of all people, to write the six-issue Wonderland 
series, which takes place in the Disney version of the 
story, after Alice has left.' Disney apparently wished to 
reach that "alt-teen" culture and went with the popu- 
lar Slave Labor Graphics imprint. Writing the story 
with his illustrator, Sunny Liew, in Singapore, was a 
new experience for Tommy. Although initially reluc- 
tant to surrender control, he eventually was delighted 
with the collaboration with a formally trained and tal- 
ented artist who "can draw things I can't" and who 
was accustomed to working in color. 

Kovac said he'd been obsessed with Wonderland 
since he was four and his father dug a pit in the back- 
yard, where little Tommy would often sit in hopes of 
falling down the rabbit hole. Although the Wonderland 
comics take place after Alice has gone, he still wanted 
a little girl protagonist, so chose Mary Ann, the White 
Rabbit's servant girl, who was, although never seen 
in Carroll's tale, enough like Alice to be mistaken for 
her. The comics are witty, with many in-jokes (e.g., 
the Duchess is shown eating ham products, which 
could only have come from the baby that turned 
into a pig), have added characters (e.g., the royalty 




Tommy Kovac 



of other suits), and fr 
illustrate scenes, crea- 
tures, and people not 
often pictured, such as 
Elsie, Lacie, and Til- 
lie in the treacle well. 
The story arc involves 
the Cheshire Cat's mas- 
terminding of a plot to 
dethrone the Queen of 
Hearts. Tommy, aside 
from being a gifted art- 
ist and writer, is a fine 
speaker. Disney chose 
well. 

Iain McCaig is one 
of our culture's most 

gifted storytellers. His artistic outlets are numerous, 
and he excels in all of them. An accomplished writer, 
award-winning film director, illustrator, sculptor, 
teacher, and costume designer, he is best known as 
a concept artist for films (a concept artist is the one 
whose imagination manifests the visual look of a film, 
its characters and settings). Iain's visions have been 
the basis for all three Star Wars prequels, along with 
Terminator 2, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Peter 
Pan, Hook, Charlotte's Web, and many, many others. He 
has created the look of such icons as Darth Maul and 
Padme Amidala. 

Iain's talk, "We're All Mad Here: On the Insanity 
of Creating Another Illustrated Alice," began by pre- 
senting a paradox: the books have been illustrated by 
many different artists, yet the first one was absolutely 









■ •_=. 



"Hatter and Hare, " © 2008 Iain McCaig 




Iain McCaig 



perfect: Where to go? 
Here he let us in, for 
the first time in public, 
on "a secret project, 
a tale of madness and 
obsession": every week 
he completes one more 
drawing for one of the 
Alice books, intending 
to publish them when 
he's 82. (We certainly 
hope it's long before 
that!) He is particularly 
drawn to scenes "just 
before the ones you usu- 
ally see." 

Iain started by show- 
ing us some of his past work, particularly for films. Al- 
though he is primarily known as a fantasy artist, his fa- 
vorite subject is people. "People are the most fantastic 
creatures, but if I put horns and wings on them it sells 
better." We were also privileged to see many works not 
yet realized in film (e.g., Princess of Mars, The Sorcerer's 
Apprentice). 

As to Alice, Iain lived in Britain for seventeen 
years. One day he was teaching an art class at his 
daughter's school and "felt this golden glow," which 
turned out to belong to a seven-year-old girl — born 
on May 4 — who became his muse. Her name was 
Joanne, and Iain says he's done at least a thousand 
pictures of her as Alice. He related a funny anecdote 
about chucking a number of kids into a swimming 
pool in Victorian dress for the "Pool of Tears" scene 



and being amazed at her skill in her drowning act. He 
soon realized she wasn't acting, and rescued her. 

He feels Wonderland is really a portrait of Alice: 
all the people and creatures she meets are but aspects 
of her character. A poster commission from Barry Tis- 
bury led to his first serious drawings, and he regaled 
us with funny stories about his inspirations: e.g., a 
dead mouse, or a toilet plunger and potty seat, which 
became the Hatter's hat. 

The place where the creative process roils within 
him he calls the Shadowline, and a book with that 
title, featuring both his past and present art, as well as 
a marvelous fantasy tale, is forthcoming. 11 

After a convivial lunch at Tulio Ristorante, we 
returned for a private tour with SPL's Jodee Fenton. 
Seattle is a dynamic, literary community with enough 
resources to back a $160 million building designed 
by Rem Koolhaas, a collection of 1.5 million books, 
and extraordinarily well thought out answers to ques- 
tions of access, information, growth, data, expansion, 
organization, comfort, and ergonomics. Jodee called 
its extraordinary light from the latticed walls a visual 
metaphor for freedom of information. A remarkable 
achievement, all in all. 

Our next speaker was Jack Prelutsky, author of 
more than fifty collections of his own verse and edi- 
tor of numerous anthologies of poetry for children. 
In 2006, the Poetry Foundation named him the inau- 
gural winner of the Children's Poet Laureate award. 4 
His warm anecdotal ramblings, interwoven with read- 
ings of his poems, made for a most delightful hour. 
He called his talk "All Sorts of Nonsense: Looking 
Back on Lands of Wonder." 



Jack hated poetry as a kid, which he blamed on 
bad teaching, among other reasons. ("Poetry was 
not a thing that was emphasized in the Bronx too 
much.") He flunked English in college. In his twen- 
ties, he discovered folk music, and those ballads, with 
their plainspoken language and conversational style, 
got him hooked on verse; he still composes on and 
plays the guitar. Naming influences as varied as Lewis 
Carroll, Ogden Nash, Edward Lear, W. S. Gilbert, 
Borscht-belt comics, the Three Stooges, and the Marx 
Brothers, he regaled us with his droll nonsense verse, 
often with groan-inducing paranomasia. ("Puns are 
like children; you can be proud and ashamed of 
them at the same time.") Their infectious whimsy was 
quite Carrollian in spirit. Jack also mused about how 
poems arise — a hurt foot, seeing a mop head on the 
sidewalk, and so on: "You never know when an idea 
is going to happen." He looks for and celebrates the 
absurd in everyday life. 

Some of the poems were directly influenced by 
Carroll ("The Queen of Eene," "The Frummick and 
the Frelly," a take on "The Walrus and the Carpen- 
ter"), 5 and some less directly so (e.g., "The Court 
Jester's Last Report to the King," "Herbert Glerbert," 
"Behold the Bold Umbrellaphant," "Don't Ever Seize 
a Weasel by the Tail"). 

We were most honored to hear a poem he com- 
posed especially for this occasion, entitled "The 
Lesser Laureate," which modestly refers to himself, as 
he once read right after Charles Simic, our nation's 
current Poet Laureate. 

Jack's books, illustrated by some of the best in 
the business (e.g., Arnold Lobel, Peter Sis), are the 
source of much merriment for kids and adults. He 
also reads his own works on CDs. 

A feeding frenzy followed, with Jack and Tommy 
signing copies of their works. 

August Imholtz then read a few announcements. 
The Michael Welsh opera/poetry event scheduled 
for that evening had been canceled, our spring 2008 
meeting would be in Washington, D.C., and a DVD of 
our spring 2006 meeting at the University of South- 
ern California, "Lewis Carroll and the Idea of Child- 



hood" (KL 76:13-18), has been made available, free 
of charge." 

Our most recent president, Alan Tannenbaum, 
spoke next on "Alice in (and out of) Copyright-land: 
On the 100th Anniversary of the Expiration of the 
Copyright." Alan's day job, with IBM, is concerned 
with intellectual property rights, so he was quite 
qualified to present this informative talk about Brit- 
ish copyright laws during the nineteenth century, and 
Dodgson's significant involvement with and influ- 
ence on the publishing and bookselling industries 
of the time. Had it not been for Dodgson's unusual 
foresight in retaining the copyright to his own works, 
he would never have had the personal creative and 
commercial control of his texts and illustrations that 
drove him for most of his life. Following the expira- 
tion of Wonderland's copyright in 1907, a flurry of 
newly illustrated editions appeared on both sides of 
the pond, some of the best examples of which Alan 
showed us in a colorful slide show. (The talk will be 
printed in full in a forthcoming issue.) Our first meet- 
ing in the Pacific Northwest concluded with a small 
session of camaraderie, shmoozing, and the promise 
to meet soon in the Other Washington (D.C.). 

1 You can order copies from his Web site, www. Tommy 
Kovac.com. Due to odd printing errors, all three 
Skelebunnies comics are labeled "#1." "The Antipathies" 
is in the issue with a yellow background on the cover 
and no subtitle (the others are subtitled "Spanktacular" 
and "Please Don't Eat the Babies"). Original art is also 
available. 

- The six issues will be collected into a graphic novel, due 
out from Disney Press in July 2008. 
Shadowline: The Art of Iain McCaig, due out from Insight 
Editions in August 2008, edited by the present writer. 

4 The Poetry Foundation is a Chicago-based institution 
formed from Poetry magazine, which it continues 
to publish, with a 2003 gift of $200 million from 
philanthropist Ruth Lilly. 

' The Queen of Eene (Greenwillow Books, 1978); "The 
Frummick and the Frelly" from The Snopp on the Sidewalk 
(Greenwillow Books, 1977). 

f ' A few copies are available: email Tyson Gaskill, gaskill® 
usc.edu. 




The readers: Bethany, Colin, Mark, and Paul 



THE LESSER LAUREATE 

{for the LCSNA— October 13, 2007) 

There was a lesser laureate 
Who loved the sound of his own words. 
Since no one else cared much for them, 
He read them to the birds. 

The birds that chanced to hear this bard 
Were charmed by all he did recite, 
So he declaimed throughout the day, 
And well into the night. 

The birds, of course, were fast asleep, 
Yet he was wholly undeterred, 
And babbled on and on and on, 
Though none could hear a word. 

Next morning, when the birds awoke, 
All having slept the whole night long, 
They saw that lesser laureate, 
And greeted him in song. 

That cheerful song the birds performed 
Delighted him in every way, 
And to return the favor, he 
Recited all that day. 

There was a lesser laureate 
Who gamboled in a field of words. 
No human ever heard his verse — 
His rhymes were . . . for the birds. 

©2007 Jack Prelutsky 




THE FRUMMICK AND THE FRELLY 



The frummick and the frelly 
sat beneath a silver sky, 
spreading jingleberry jelly 
over pinkadoodle pie. 

The frelly weighed a hundred tons, 
the frummick matched its size. 
They both ate bales of boiling buns 
and countless piles of pies. 

The frelly and the frummick 

were in fairly mellow moods 

as they stuffed their massive stomachs 

with a great array of foods. 

They fared on pairs of pickled yare 
and shared a score of sneel. 
They gorged on gare both burnt and rare 
in their exotic meal. 

They ate a clutch of candied snutch 
and troves of tasty troove 
in such a way they ate so much 
that they could barely move. 

And in that way, for quite some while, 
the weighty couple sat, 
each seeming, in its special style, 
contented, full and fat. 

"There's nothing left to eat, dear friend," 

the frelly said at last. 

"I fear our feast is at an end, 

and such a fine repast." 

"Ah fine, so fine," the frummick sighed 
and scratched its bulging belly, 
then opened wide and stuffed inside 
the flabbergasted frelly. 



©1977 Jack Prelutsky, 

from The Snopp on the Sideiualk (Greenwillow Books) 

reprinted with their kind permission 



Jack Prelutsky 



*&&& 



EVOLUTION OF A DREAM-CHILD 

Images of Alice & Changing Conceptions of Childhood 

victoria sears goldman 

— -£06* 



TV 



THE LATE NINETEEN- SIXTIES 



With the advent of the 1960s, society began to shift 
its focus away from children and toward "teenagers, 
attributing to them boundless energy, political altru- 
ism, and polymorphously joyous sensuality." 1 Indeed, 
in the late sixties, issues and concerns that were for- 
merly the exclusive province of adults, such as poli- 
tics, drugs, and sexuality, became intensely pertinent 
to adolescents. This rejection of childhood — partic- 
ularly of its ostensible innocence — is evident in two 
sets of Alice images from this period. Ralph Stead- 
man's 1967 Alice was acutely 
attuned to the politics and 
drug culture of the time, 
while Salvador Dalf's wood- 
cuts of 1969 allude to drugs 
in their surreal, hallucina- 
tory images. 

Steadman's striking 
black-and-white illustrations 
represent the first radical 
reinterpretation of both the 
visual and thematic aspects 
of Tenniel's originals. More 
appealing to adults than to 
children, Steadman's con- 
ception of both Alice and 
Wonderland is "full of con- 
temporary invokes referring 

to pop music, politics, television, art, football and fash- 
ion." 2 This emphasis on popular culture, however, has 
the effect of detracting attention from Alice. His Alice 
is clearly a teenager, yet it is in the rest of the char- 



Victoria Stars Goldman, a PhD candidate in art history at 
Princteon, wrote this as her undergraduate senior thesis from 
Barnard in 2003. We are publishing this in its entirety over 
several issues of the Knight Letter, this article being the fifth of six 
sections. References may be to books cited in parts of her article 
previously published in the Knight Letter. 




Ralph Steadman 



acters that Steadman is cleverest and most attuned 
to the culture of the late sixties. In his introduction, 
Steadman provides detailed descriptions of many of 
the characters (most of whom are types specific to the 
1960s), yet does not say a word about Alice. 3 Perhaps 
he felt that Alice was not the embodiment of the pe- 
riod so much as a product of it, and thus he chose to 
capture the mood of the era in her surroundings and 
allow readers to form their own conclusions about Al- 
ice's relationship to that mood. Or maybe Steadman 
simply did not wish to dwell 
on the stylistic and thematic 
distance between his Alice 
and Tenniel's, an emphasis 
that would potentially con- 
centrate readers' attention 
on that distance and away 
from the singularity and 
contemporary implications 
of this new Alice. Nonethe- 
less, Steadman's deviation 
from Tenniel is deliberate 
and explicit, and his overall 
conception of adolescence 
is certainly aligned with the 
decade's focus on the rebel- 
lious spirit of teenagers. 

Steadman's Alice is a 
rather hideous child, unchildlike though she may 
be. Her prunelike face and heavy eyebrows convey 
a rather sour expression, and her long arms lead to 
long, bony fingers. In the Caucus Race illustration, 
Alice is seated on the ground, full-chested, feet spread 
to the sides, hair wild, with an expression suggest- 
ing a substance-induced stupor of some sort. Some 
of the animals that surround her seem to be quite 
drugged themselves. In situations where all previous 
Alices appear frightened, curious, or innocently con- 
fused, Steadman's instead appears dazed, frenzied, or 



stunned. For example, when squeezed uncomfortably 
in the White Rabbit's house, rather than calculatingly 
looking at the chimney, she appears ready to burst 
out of the house in a fit of delirium. 

Steadman's style is also far removed from Alice 
illustrations that preceded it. Like Tenniel's illustra- 
tions, Steadman's drawings, also entirely black and 
white, are intricately lined and detailed. Shading is 
created by varying densities of cross-hatching, while 
short strokes of ink suggest fur, hair, or wrinkles. 
However, Steadman's illustrations are distinguished 
by his treatment of space and the way his charac- 
ters inhabit that space. The images fill entire pages 
and force themselves boldly upon the reader; they 
demand attention. The illustration of Alice and the 
giant puppy is especially con- 
frontational. The monumen- 
tal dog appears poised to 
leap out of the picture space 
and into ours. Spiky-leaved 
dandelions also seem anxious 
to grow outward. The orga- 
nization of space in this and 
all of Steadman's illustrations 
is disorienting. No sense of 
foreground or background 
can be discerned. In the Wal- 
rus and Carpenter scene, a 
black-and-white checkered 
floor stretches geometrically 
into the background, creat- 
ing a dynamic and striking 
effect. Lastly, when Steadman 
depicts the pack of cards ris- 
ing up into the air, he creates 
a wave of motion that sweeps 
upward toward the top of the 
page and seemingly beyond 
its confines. Alice is flung 
into the air, and her hair flies 
wildly around her head in a 
centripetal movement. The 
stunned eyes of the owl and 
frog lend a hallucinatory at- 
mosphere to the scene. The 
illustration offers its viewers 

no clarity of space around which to orient themselves. 
Overall, Steadman's illustrations present the reader 
with an Alice who does not conform to traditional 
conceptions of what childhood should look like and 
with a confusing space that refuses to stand still and 
anchor the characters or the reader. 

In 1969, Salvador Dalf completed twelve woodcuts 
and one etching for a limited edition of Alice's Adven- 
tures in Wonderland. His illustrations are "pure surreal- 
ism," 4 and are suggestive of nightmarish, disorienting 
dreams or hallucinatory visions. Dalf shared Carroll's 




Ralph Steadman 



obsession with childhood fantasy, and his illustrations 
can be interpreted as childhood fantasy gone awry. 
Unsettling shadows and odd juxtapositions make for 
sinister and sometimes frightening images. His Mad 
Tea Party is not an intelligible image at first glance. 
But slowly the individual images come together and 
the scene becomes apparent. The Tea Party floats am- 
biguously and is interspersed with dots and oversized 
insects; the latter are, curiously, the only realistically 
rendered images. The pocket watch, central to the 
Tea Party in the text, is cleverly conceived by Dalf as 
an oversized drooping clock, thus surely alluding to 
his Persistence of Memory. The background of his illus- 
trations consists of vast, seemingly infinite expanses, 
mountains, and a few scattered trees, and is perhaps 
more suitably considered a 
surrealistic backdrop than a 
veritable landscape. 

When pondering how 
best to depict an Alice who 
would allude to childhood, 
without sacrificing the 
uniqueness of his vision, Dalf 
turned to engravings he had 
made fourteen years earlier 
for Paul Eluard's Nuits Part- 
agees. In two of the engrav- 
ings was a tiny silhouette of 
a tall steeple, and from this 
image "he evolved the thin 
and mobile silhouette of a 
girl in a long pleated dress, 
her outstretched arms swirl- 
ing a skipping-rope above 
her head." 5 She is emblem- 
atic rather than human: her 
black silhouette betrays no 
emotion or expression. In 
his "Advice from a Caterpil- 
lar," we see Alice, jump rope 
in hand, wandering unthink- 
ing and trancelike through 
a strange, surreal Wonder- 
land, seemingly unaware of 
the irrational, extraordinary 
strangeness that surrounds 
her. In Alice, Dalf ingenuously evokes both the in- 
nocence of childhood and the transformative nature 
of maturation and accompanying experiences. He 
appropriates his symbol of innocence from Giorgio 
de Chirico — "a girl skipping through a menacing 
cityscape — as his image of Alice. " b 

She always holds a jump rope, a constant re- 
minder of childhood innocence within a hallucina- 
tory environment that itself certainly does not sug- 
gest innocence. Like de Chirico's girl, Alice "plays 
in alien landscapes, an obviously fragile figure in a 




Salvador Dali 



for an expression of emotion that explicit sexuality 
hinders? Perhaps with his inclusion of the young girl, 
Dali is attempting to illustrate the emotional implica- 
tions of the transformation from implicit to explicit 
sexuality. Carroll conveyed such transformations 
through Alice's shrinkings and telescopings, while 
Dali expresses sexual transformation by representing 
and symbolizing the beginning and end phases of the 
process. 

Never before had an artist portrayed Alice as so 
explicitly pubescent and in a state of transformation 
beyond those initiated by her. experiences with mush- 
rooms and bottles labeled "Drink me." Dali created an 
Alice who could embody Lolita, but under the guise 
of surrealism. He chose to depict Alice as obviously 
adolescent, yet he did not lose sight of her childish 
origins. Dali was, in his own words, "fascinated by the 
dual nature of the heroine, combining high erotic 
potential with the essence of childishness,"" a dual- 
ism reminiscent of the Victorian child. 

So after the explosive maturity and drugged tone 
of Steadman's Alice, in Dali we find more hallucina- 
tions. Yet these are dreams that, surreal as they are, 
are tinged with innocence and even nostalgia. Why 
this desire not only to evoke but also to emphasize 
childhood to an extent that Disney's version did not 
even approach? This return to childhood — albeit a 



curious world."' Both Dali and Carroll admired the 
way children detached themselves from reality and 
their ability to perceive objects and relationships that 
go unnoticed by the flawed adult eye. 8 They hoped in 
their respective work to reinstate "something near to 
child-vision in adulthood." 9 

According to James Kincaid, childhood and 
adulthood converge during puberty. He maintains 
that puberty "provided a means for preserving child- 
hood innocence . . . marked the moment of meta- 
morphosis, where the child was recast as an adult." 10 I 
suggest that by endowing Alice with both a jump rope 
and a developed chest, symbols of her innocence 
and impending maturation respectively, Dali created 
a pubescent Alice who incarnates Freud's claim that 
children are anything but sexually innocent, and em- 
bodies the processes of transformation with which 
Carroll was so fascinated. Dali's Alice is an emblem 
of metamorphosis. In the etching of the edition's 
frontispiece, an orange silhouette of Alice and her 
jump rope is juxtaposed with a girl who, clearly much 
younger, watches her from her bicycle. Her body lan- 
guage suggests curiosity and wonder: those traits that 
most Alices possess while in Wonderland. Yet Dali's 
Alice conveys nothing. It is a younger, more innocent 
child who expresses the only emotion in his illus- 
trations. Is Dali privileging the child who shows no 
outward signs of sexuality? Does sexual latency allow 




Salvador Dali 



8 



very different childhood than that envisioned by Car- 
roll and his contemporaries — would characterize the 
significant visualizations of Alice into the twenty-first 
century. 

1 Alison Lurie, "The Boy Who Couldn't Grow Up." New 

York Times Review of Books, Vol. 22, No. 1, February 6, 

1975. 
- Malcolm Yorke, Mervyn Peake (New York: The Overlook 

Press, 2002), p. 245. ' 
1 Ralph Steadman, Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland, 

Introduction (London: Dennis Dobson, 1967). 
4 John Davis, introduction, The Illustrators of Alice in 

Wonderland, ed. Graham Ovenden (New York: St. Martin's 

Press, 1972), p. 10. 



Hugues Lebailly, "'Connie in Wonderland': Salvador 
Dali's statue of Alice a surrealistic avatar of Whistler and 
Coleman's skipping rope dancer?", The Carrollian No. 1, 
Spring 1998 (London: I. cu is Carroll Society, 1998), p. 19. 
Jeffrey Stern, "Lewis Carroll the Surrealist," Lewis Carroll: 
A Celebration, ed. Edward Guiliano (New York: Clarkson 
N.Potter, 1982), p. 150. 
Ibid, p. 150. 
Ibid, p. 148. 
Ibid, p. 148. 

James Kincaid, Child-Coving: 'The Erotic Child and Victorian 
Culture (New York: Routledge, 1992), p. 290. 
Lebailly, p. 19. 
















Salvador Dali (frontispiece) 



<lr Chirico (detail) 



!lora in the Illustrations of the 




A BRIEF SURVEY 

ALISON TANNENBAUM 



£#$► 



"W yhat species of plants appear in Lewis Car- 

% M\ m roll's and John Tenniel's illustrations to 
.^j£ jfc*.the A/zc£ books? Are they recognizable, 
too vaguely depicted to identify, or simply fantastic? 

To date, there seems to have been no systematic 
analysis of the plants in these 93 illustrations. 1 For 
the author's fellow horticulturists, and anyone else 
interested, this brief article lists the vegetation that 
appears in Carroll's illustrations for Under Ground and 
Tenniel's for Wonderland and Looking-Glass. Names 
are suggested only for plants that are clearly identifi- 
able by major physical characteristics. This work is an 
effort to make an objective accounting of the botani- 
cal information that can be gleaned solely from the 
illustrations, followed by a brief discussion of various 
points of view regarding the plants depicted. 

ALICE'S ADVENTURES UNDER GROUND 

Title page: Ivy, with a herbaceous plant superim- 
posed on the "A" of "Alice's." 

p. 8 (13): Bouquet of flowers in the White Rabbit's 
paw. 

p. 17 (31): Outlines of meadow plants surrounding 
Alice. 

p. 24 (49): Mushroom; meadow grasses and flowers 
underneath. 

p. 33 (67): Gnarled oak tree (Quercus sp.); single 
herbaceous plant at base of tree. 

p. 37 (71): Section of formal garden with lawn, 

edged walk, fountain, and one small bed of flow- 
ering plants; one shrub behind Alice. 

ALICE'S ADVENTURES IN WONDERLAND 

p. 1: Grasses and a single, puffy flower. 

p. 48: Potted plant on windowsill of the White Rab- 
bit's house. 

p. 55: Large thistle (the "Scotch" thistle, Onopordum 
sp.; or "milk" thistle, Sylibum sp.); miscellaneous 
grasses; skeletal ferns in background. 

p. 59: Two varieties of mushroom (one seating the 
Caterpillar; the other to its left on the ground) ; 
large-bladed grass; flowering plant (possibly 
Campanula sp.); large-leafed shrub. 

p. 63: Haystacks in foreground; trees and shrubs in 
far background. 



p. 64: Vague suggestion of shrubs in view from 
window. 

p. 66: Grasses; cattails; deciduous trees in back- 
ground; suggestion of three rows of a cultivated 
plant. 

p. 77: Large deciduous tree; one upright evergreen. 

p. 88: Large foxglove (Digitalis sp.) plant; an arum 
(Arum sp.; Arum italicumwas a popular garden 
plant) just in front of the foxglove; grass. 

p. 91: Large oak (probably English oak, Quercus 
rober) with what appear to be the same foxglove 
(Digitalis sp.) and arum (Arum sp.) underneath; 
grass. 

p. 93: Same oak, top portion only. 

p. 97: Large deciduous tree with ivy (Hedera helix). 

p. 113: The "painted" rose (Rosa sp.); grass; shrubs in 
background. 

p. 117: Formal garden with arched yew (Taxus sp., 
most likely, baccata) hedges and large decidu- 
ous trees (the narrower appear to be poplars, 
Populus sp.); perennials or bedding plants in 
foreground, surrounded by low (iron or willow) 
arched edging. 

p. 121: Crosshatched suggestion of shrubbery in 
background. 

p. 132: Vague outlines of large deciduous trees in 
background. 

p. 138: Suggestion of tall grasses in background. 

THROUGH THE LOOKING-GLASS 

Frontispiece: Gnarled deciduous tree in foreground, 
probably an oak (Quercus sp., likely to be rober, if 
an English oak), with ivy (Hedera helix, "English" 
ivy) leaves in the upper-left corner of the illus- 
tration; some younger deciduous trees in the 
background. 

p. 11: "Flower" arrangement in vase under glass 
dome on left edge of mantel appears to be 
beaded (on wire) rather than fresh. 

p. 12: Flower arrangement under glass dome at right 
edge of mantelpiece appears to be artificial or 
dried. 

p. 23: Wooded glade composed of deciduous trees. 

p. 29: One Asiatic lily (Lilium sp. or hybrid); a rose- 
bush (Rosa sp.), probably the type known as a 



10 



"cabbage rose" for its dense, overlapping petals, 
much like the leaves of cabbage; a flowering plant 
of the Compositae (daisy) family, at left margin 
of illustration; two patches of low-growing plant 
(possibly Pulmonaria sp., "lungwort") near the iron 
fence border; ornamental grass; three clumps of 
leaves near the base of the lily plant; a fragment of 
Virginia creeper (Part hen ocissus cinquefolia; "wood- 
bine," to the British) in the lower-left corner; 
trees/shrubs in the background. 

p. 35: Glade composed of deciduous trees; sugges- 
tion of low herbaceous plants in foreground. 

p. 38: Two oak trees, one very old and gnarled; 
"checkerboard" pattern of what appear to be 
cultivated fields, separated by hedges; shrubs in 
foreground. 

p. 41: Large deciduous tree, the base of which is 
surrounded by weedy or grassy plants; smaller 
deciduous tree to its right. 

p. 56: Ivy leaves. 

p. 57: Ivy leaves and two English holly (Ilex aquifo- 
lium) leaves that appear to arise from a gall; the 
gall forms the "body," and the leaves the "wings" 
of the "insect." 

p. 63: Wooded glade composed of several young 
deciduous trees and shrubs. 

p. 67: Large oak (Quercus sp.) in center, with a beech 
tree (Fagus sylvatica, European beech) to either 
side behind it; ivy leaves on the oak; two fernlike 
leaves to the right of the Tweedles. 

p. 80: Beech trees (Fagus sylvatica, European beech) 
with grass at their bases; leafy plant at right edge 
of illustration. 

p. 84: Gnarled tree with ivy; grass at base. 

p. 87: Gnarled tree with grass at base and a few ivy 
leaves at first crotch. 

p. 93: Dimly depicted deciduous tree in background. 

p. 110: Large deciduous shrubs. Although Alice 
refers to "scented rushes," the plants here are 
not a grass but appear to have distinctive, lobed 
leaves; given the watery environment, this sug- 
gests a woody wetland shrub. 

p. 118: Ivy vines on wall; tops of mixed deciduous 
forest in background; grass at base of wall. 

p. 127: Stand of deciduous trees in background; 

clump of bare twigs under sundial; suggestion of 
grass on hillside. 

p. 138: Stand of deciduous trees; a few cut stumps 
and some grass in the foreground. 

p. 142: Stand of deciduous trees in background; 
open, grassy area in foreground. 

p. 152: Grassy foreground with suggestion of decidu- 
ous shrubs at right edge of illustration. 

p. 156: Grassy foreground. 

p. 160: Large beech trees (Fagus sylvatica, European 
beech); grassy foreground. 



p. 166: Deciduous trees in background; short grass 
in foreground. 

p. 172: Weedy, shrubby vegetation; grassy fore- 
ground. 

p. 179: Shrubs; patchy grass under gate. 

p. 190: Shrubs in background. 

p. 198: Shrubs in background. 

There seems to be no consensus as to who was pri- 
marily responsible for the plant choices that appear 
in the Tenniel illustrations. Some maintain that it 
was Carroll; one source, Robert Hornback, states that 
Carroll "was particularly fond of garden imagery," al- 
though that statement was not substantiated, and the 
examples he provides seem forced. 2 

Isa Bowman asserts from her direct experiences 
with Carroll that he "cared for neither flowers nor 
animals. Tender and kind as he was, simple and unas- 
suming in all his tastes, yet he did not like flowers!" 1 
"Once, and once only, I saw him to have taken an in- 
terest in a flower, and that was because of the folk- 
lore that was attached to it, and not because of the 
beauty of the flower itself." This referred to the fox- 
glove plant (Digitalis sp.) used in illustrations on pp. 
88 and 91 of Wonderland. 

With respect to symbolism, one could conceiv- 
ably draw on the traditional Victorian scheme for the 
"meaning" of each flower, which is, at best, ambigu- 
ous, and at worst, contradictory (e.g., red rose = love, 
desire, respect, and/or courage; white rose = charm, 
secrecy, and/or silence; orange lily = hatred, disdain, 
wealth, and/or pride). However, the few flowers de- 
picted in the illustrations (with the exception of the 
talking tiger lily — which was originally intended to 
be a passionflower, but was changed when Carroll 
learned that its name referred to Christ's Passion) do 
not play a major role in the text, and thus, imputing 
this type of significance to them seems excessive. 

Some authors have taken the alleged significance 
of some of the illustrated plants to the extreme. For 
example, John Docherty claims that in the two illus- 
trations in which Alice is about to release the "pig" 
and re-encounters the Cheshire Cat (pp. 88 and 91 
of Wonderland, respectively), Alice "leaves behind her 
a curious plant: an arum with a splendid foxglove re- 
placing the (phallic) spadix."' It is obvious in both 
illustrations that the arum leaves (with no spadix 
present in either plant depicted) were simply placed 
(presumably by Tenniel) in front of the foxglove, ob- 
scuring the base of the foxglove plant. There is no 
evidence in the text that Alice had anything whatso- 
ever to do with either of these plants, both commonly 
cultivated temperate-zone plants that might appear 
in any English garden. 

Docherty also states that in the illustration de- 
picting Alice's meeting with the Queen's procession 
(Wonderland, p. 117), "the garden is full of images of 



11 



artificial confinement," including a "huge hothouse 
surrounded by trees with very narrow crowns, like 
those favoured for cemeteries," and a "clipped yew 
hedge with astonishingly sinister apertures." A green- 
house for growing exotic plants and/or temperate- 
zone plants out of season is a common feature of even 
the smallest English garden, and is overwhelmingly 
considered an asset. Columnar trees (notably, the 
columnar European beech, Fagus sylvatica fastigiata, 
or trees pruned to columnar shapes, such as lindens, 
Tilia cordata, or hornbeams, Carpinus sp.) were (and 
still are) popular choices for formal allees. These spe- 
cies tolerate the severe pruning that maintains their 
intended formal shapes and keeps them in scale with 
their surroundings. Dense, tall yew (Taxus baccata) 
hedges designed to provide enclosure and to sepa- 
rate large gardens into various "rooms" are standard 
features on larger English properties; they normally 
have arched openings to allow passage into the next 
garden "room." There is nothing sinister about these 
typical (and generally considered desirable) English 
garden features, and no evidence that those depicted 
in the Tenniel illustrations hold any special signifi- 
cance, either negative or positive. 

Others, perhaps more expert with regard to the 
history of the Tenniel illustrations, believe that the 
background details were left to Tenniel, who en- 
hanced the drawings as he saw fit, subject to Carroll's 
frequent supervision and final approval. 5 De Freitas 
states that "Carroll ... cared passionately about the 
illustrations to his books" and that "Despite the don's 
constant attention, Tenniel was not frightened to in- 
terpret Carroll according to his own ideas rather than 
to limit himself to any narrow reading of the text." 

That the plants were not particularly significant 
to the story is supported by the fact that in Carroll's 
original, self-illustrated manuscript of Under Ground, 
only 5 of the 36 illustrations contain plants. (Further 
changes in the details of the illustrations could have 
occurred as the final designs were transferred to box- 
wood printing blocks, due to the technical demands 
of this sensitive process.) 

For those inclined toward statistics, 17 (45 per- 
cent) of the 42 illustrations in Wonderland depict veg- 
etation; 25 do not. Of the 51 illustrations in Looking- 
Glass, 29 (57 percent) depict vegetation, while 22 do 
not. In the facsimile of Carroll's original Under Ground 



manuscript, only 13 percent of the illustrations (5 of 
the 36) contain plants. This tally is provided merely as 
a summary; ascribing significance to it would require 
expertise or invention beyond the scope of this work. 
In conclusion, there are no plants in any of the 
illustrations to Wonderland or Through the Looking-Glass 
that are botanically fantastic or even unrealistic, and 
none that would not readily be found in the endemic 
English landscape or in a cultivated garden of that cli- 
matic zone. Temperate zone readers of the two books 
(on either side of the Atlantic) would find the oak 
and beech woods, as well as all of the other illustrated 
plants, familiar, and thus the plants would not detract 
a reader's attention from the more significant portions 
of the illustrations, the characters of Wonderland. 



The following editions were examined in preparing 
this paper: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through 
the Looking-Glass (Books of Wonder, Wm. Morrow & 
Co., Inc., 1992); Justin Schiller's 1990 reproduction 
of Wonderland (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, An 
1865 Printing Re-described, privately printed for The 
JABBERWOCK, 1990); the Rocket Press prints made 
from the original woodblocks (London: Macmillan, 
1988); Tenniel' s Alice (Dept. of Printing and Graphics, 
Harvard College: Harvard College Library, 1978); and 
the facsimile of Carroll's original manuscript (Alice's 
Adventures under Ground, Dover Publications, 1965). 

1 I include the chessboard at the beginning of Looking- 
Glass. 

2 R. Hornback, "A Garden Tour of Wonderland." Pacific 
Horticulture, Vol. 44, 1983, pp. 9-13. 

s Isa Bowman, The Story of Lewis Carroll Told for Young 
People by The Reed Alice in Wonderland (J. M. Dent, 
1899), reprinted as Lewis Carroll as I Knew Him, Dover 
Publications, 1972, pp. 73-74. 

4 John Docherty, "Carroll's Easter Bunny," in Reflections 

on Leiuis Carroll, by Various Hands, F.J. Soto and D. 
McCausland, eds., The Battered Silicon Dispatch Box, 
2000, p. 20. 

5 Frankie Morris, personal communication. 

6 L.J. De Freitas, Tenniel's Wood-Engraved Illustrations to 
Alice, A Prospectus, London: Macmillan, 1988, pp. 37, 39, 
40, 43 et passim. 



12 




ALICE IN INANIA 

A selection of satirical essays on Alice's Adventures in Inania 
in the nineteen sixties and seventies, ivith the Bull as her cicerone 

JAMILA VERGHESE with commentary by SANJAY SIRCAR 



*&k?*t 



author's preface to this reprinting 

Countries, like people, often tend to take themselves 
too seriously and need to look at the humor of their 
situation as they grapple with every kind of difficulty. 
This was true of India, an ancient civilisation but a 
new republic, as it grappled with horrendous prob- 
lems in the wake of Partition that uprooted millions 
and traumatized a whole nation. 

The sixties and seventies in Delhi was a time for 
reinventing ourselves for a new beginning and a new 
kind of living. So much had to be learnt and so much 
had to be unlearnt to move a traditional society into 
the future. Laughter was good medicine in those try- 
ing circumstances. If we could laugh at ourselves, we 
could laugh at our problems and overcome the many 
challenges that confronted us individually and col- 
lectively. This was the spirit that animated the news- 
paper "middles"* and other writings that translated 
Alice into a commentator on our contemporary lives 
and times. If our Indian Alice had shown around visi- 
tors in the capital city of Inania, she would have come 
face to face with the Bull, and not the White Rabbit of 
her earlier Wonderland! 

India is rich in epic and fable, but not in the 
idiom of Alice. It was all the more fun to take readers 
through their own lives and experiences vicariously — 
as seen by a curious but sympathetic Alice. This was 
a city and society that were trying to shed yesterday 
and needed the Cheshire Cat's grin to understand 
the coming morrow. Alice's cicerone was the comfort- 
able, but unpredictable Bull, and they became good 
companions after Alice had become familiar with her 
unusual guide. 

Essays © 2008 Jamila Verghese; commentary © 2008 Sanjay Sircar 

Jamila Verghese, nee Barakat Ullah, has been closely involved 
with issues of human relationships, gender, and the young. She 
has worked with voluntary agencies in the field, initially with 
Solidarity With Women, and continues to be associated with 
development work through the YWCA. She has authored and 
illustrated Her Gold and Her Body, a volume on the condition 
of Indian women; produced documentaries for radio and 
television; and contributed extensively to newspapers and 
journals. 

* The articles were always on the center page of the paper, hence 
"middles. " — Eds. 



ALICE IN INANIA - ALICE AT THE FUNERAL 

Alice rubbed her eyes. Where was she? This was defi- 
nitely not Wonderland. Everyone around her seemed 
to be rushing anxiously down the road. "Where am 
I?" she said aloud. 

"In Inania, of course, little girl," rumbled a voice 
behind her. Alice turned sharply. Since she was used 
to surprises she didn't think it strange when she saw 
a Talking Bull. 

"How d'you do?" she said politely. "Please could 
you tell me where the people are running to?" 

The Bull heaved himself up and suddenly turned 
himself upside down. "Oh dear," gasped Alice, "are 
you hurt?" "I'm perfectly all right," said the Bull, 
staring up at the sky, legs in the air. "You're a foreigner 
so you don't know that whenever a subject is under 
consideration, Inanians study it in an upside down 
position to get the correct perspective." 

"I see," said Alice gravely. She didn't, of course, 
but did not want to appear unintelligent. The Bull 
concentrated very hard and then righted himself 
effortlessly. "You asked a very silly question," he said 
sternly. "Anyone can see they are going to the funeral. 
Come along now or we shall be late," and he set off as 
fast as his legs could carry him. 

"Wait! Oh please wait," panted Alice. "I'm too 
little to run so fast." The Bull looked back disgustedly. 
"Jump on my back then," he puffed. 

The crowd was wailing as if its heart would break. 
"Who has died?" shouted Alice in the Bull's ear, "the 
King?" "Shhh!" hissed the Bull. "Listen!" Alice lis- 
tened. Above the weeping came the blare of the loud- 
speaker... 

"Oh weep for our departed friend — our greatest 
companion — Public Servant Number One! Yet once 
more Giant Bureaucracy and Witch Apathy have 
struck and cut him off in his prime!..." 

"Who is dead?" shouted Alice again. It was get- 
ting dark and she did not fancy meeting giants and 
witches. Oh, how she longed to be in her own home 
again! 

The crowd parted. Alice steadied herself stand- 
ing precariously on the Bull's back, which was heav- 
ing with his sobs. She saw a flower-decked carriage 
with a body draped in a black flag marked PEA and 
TEA. The carriage came closer. 



13 



Suddenly she shouted, "It's not a King at all, 
it's a Telephone — a dead Telephone." Her voice was 
drowned in the general wailing. The crowd clung 
to the body sobbing. "Operator! Operator!... Hullo! 
Hullo! Crossed lines. ..Wrong number! Number 
change ho-gya-hai*... pip pip pip... big bills. Gone — 
All gone! The Silence — Oh God! The unbearable Si- 
lence...!" 

The Dead Telephone was lowered into the draped 
dustbin. The loudspeaker took over: 

"Our beloved Telephone is dead. May he rest in 
peace. There shall be no bells ringing in our homes 
now, my friends; and there shall be peace — the 
Eternal Peace of Death." 

"I've never seen a Telephone funeral before," 
said Alice. "You have a lot to learn," said the Bull, 
wiping his eyes. 

ALICE IN PLUMBERLAND 

"You've been so kind," said Alice, "I'm sure I wouldn't 
have understood a thing about Inania without you!" 

"Oh, no mention," said the Bull, spitting some 
very red juice expertly at a corner of the building they 
stood near. "I am an Inanian and it is my duty to show 
the foreign tourist my motherland." 

Alice thought it would be useless to argue with 
the Bull about how she wasn't a tourist, so she tact- 
fully changed the subject. "I wonder what that jungle 
is made of," she said. 

"That's no jungle," said the Bull. "It's just a Forest 
of Hoardings. You find such forests all over Inania. 
This one is Private Enterprise — the Pride of Inania." 

Alice peered among the hoardings. "We 
Undertake All Kind Repairs," 1 read one. A Donkey 
sat comfortably under it, rubbing his toes with great 
satisfaction. "Excuse me," said Alice politely, "but are 
you the Pride?" 

"I," said the Donkey grandly, "am a Self-Made 
Man. Would you like to see my workshop?" "If you 
please," said Alice gratefully. 

They entered a hall which had slogans printed on 
all four walls. '"Don't Do In One Hour What Can Be 
Spread Over Three Days,'" read Alice. "'Make One, 
Spoil Two!' How funny! Now in my country..." she 
began, but stopped abruptly. The Bull was looking 
very hurt and the Donkey's ears were turning a 
tomato red. "I'm truly sorry," moaned Alice. "Oh, why 
do I always say the wrong thing here!" 

"These great principles that you seem to find 
so amusing," said the Donkey haughtily, "have been 
a constant source of inspiration for the peoples of 
Inania, and have supported us in the most difficult 
times. You see these workers?" he went on, waving his 

* The Hindi phrase "ho-gya-hai " (mure properly ho gaya hai) means "has 
happened, " in context "the number has changed. " — Eds. 

r/ir phrase is evidently meant to represent semi-literate English. — Eds. 



hand in the direction of the work tables. Alice saw 
that the tables were occupied by some thirty young 
Donkeys and Bulls industriously learning how to 
disconnect electrical fittings, cause short circuits, 
and permanently damage booster pumps. "All these 
workers are related to me either by blood or by 
marriage," said the Donkey. "Although eager to learn 
their craft, progress is slow as the basic principle — 
Destroy While Seeming to Repair — as yet eludes their 
untutored minds. You see how many Inanians are 
dependent on me for a living? Life's no bed of roses, 
I can tell you." Here the Donkey was so overwhelmed 
that a tear rolled down his furry cheek. 

"I didn't realize how much good you do," said 
Alice, thoroughly chastened. "Well," said the Donkey, 
"I'm glad you are beginning to appreciate our country 
and our methods. This project is called Private 
Enterprise. We live mostly on ignorant housewives 
who know nothing about electricity or plumbing." 

"How terrible," cried Alice. "I thought you were 
vegetarians. We never eat housewives in my country!" 

"What a silly girl you are!" laughed the Donkey. 
"We don't eat them, we just use them to illustrate 
the Great Guiding Principle of Inania — 'Each One 
Fleece One.' Now this is the way we work. A house tap 
leaks. The housewife telephones us. We immediately 
send an experienced mechanic to disconnect the tap. 
He also unscrews the flush and drives nails into the 
shower holes. A full day's work, mind you, and we 
charge the lady for labor alone. The materials are all 
ours. She pays up gratefully, and because we are nice 
and polite, she rings us the next day to say she can't 
understand why the shower doesn't work. So we go 
back for another day's work, and everyone is happy! 
It pays, you know, to take a little trouble over public 
relations in this job — very rewarding. Very rewarding 
indeed — yes, yes," he went on, emotion surging to his 
eyes again, "very uplifting!" 

"I think," said the bewildered Alice, "I'm just 
beginning to understand Inania." 

"A good beginning," said the Bull, splashing the 
corner red again, 'You're a good learner." 

HULLO, ALICE!: ALICE IN TELEPHONE CITY 

"Complaints speaking!" Alice looked around her. A 
large red board behind her said, "Complaint Office," 
but there was no one in sight. 

"Ah!" said the voice again. Alice almost jumped 
out of her skin. 

"Scared you, didn't I? Don't look around you, 
little girl, you can't see me. I'm only a disembodied 
voice." 

"But who are you?" said Alice, completely mystified. 

"Don't you know}" said the voice, amazed. "You 
must be a very stupid girl. Everyone else in Telephone 
City knows us very well indeed. Oh yes, we are most 
popular . . . most popular . . . 



14 



"We are Complaint Men, Complaint Men are rue. 

We listen to your tales of woe, and then we all have 
tea. 

So hurry up and say what 's wrong xuith you today, 

Then if the gods are willing, we'll deal with it today. " 

"But I'm very well, thank you, Mr. Complaint 
Man," said Alice politely. "There's nothing wrong 
with me at all!" 

"What?" said the Complaint Man, looking very 
hurt. "You are in perfect working order? Mouth 
piece? ear piece, internal wiring, and all?" 

"What an odd thing to say," giggled Alice. "You 
almost make me sound like a telephone!" 

"Well, aren't 
you?" said the Com- 
plaint Man, bri- 
dling. "If you aren't, 
what do you mean 
by wasting my pre- 
cious tea time? I'm 
not here to be at 
the beck and call of 
inconsequential hu- 
mans like you!" The 
Complaint Man 
was now working 
himself into hyste- 
ria. "Trying to trick 
me into giving you 
one of my precious 
Complaint Num- 
bers, were you?" 
he bellowed at the 

frightened Alice. "Get out! To think that you might 
never have returned me my own, my dear little Com- 
plaint Number!" 

"I only asked..." began Alice, but she got no fur- 
ther. She was suddenly surrounded by a cacophonic 
jungle. A myriad voices swore at each other in every 
conceivable language, while piercing screams, moans, 
and crackling dial tones hemmed her about, reach- 
ing out to grab her. Alice pressed her fingers to her 
ears and ran blindly through their tentacles, straight 
into a large Bull who sat placidly amid the welter and 
confusion, contentedly chewing the cud. 

The Bull smiled good-naturedly at Alice. 

"Oh please, please, Mr. Bull," sobbed the poor 
girl, "help me get out of this horrid place!" 

"You'll never get out of here, my child," said the 
Bull calmly. "No one who ever wanders into Inania 
ever does. So why don't you just relax, and I'll show 
you the sights of Telephone City." 

Alice clung to the Bull gratefully. He seemed the 
only normal being in this topsy-turvy world. Soon they 
came upon a faded velvet and gold throne, covered 
with dust and hung about with cobwebs. On it sat a 
mouldy skeleton with lights and wires in its ribcage. 




From Times Weekly, November 7, 1971, © Mario Miranda 



"There now," said the Bull respectfully, "is our 
great All Inania Telephone System." 

Alice laughed. "You must be joking," she said. 
"That's only a dead skeleton — as extinct as the dodo!" 
The Bull seemed very offended. "If you are going to be 
facetious," he said. "Oh no! I didn't mean any harm," 
said Alice quickly. "You must remember, child," said 
the Bull sagely, "that you are in Inania. Anything that 
seems inane to you is a Most Highly Regarded Na- 
tional Trait with us... The All Inania Telephone Sys- 
tem has sat on that gold cobwebbed throne as far back 
as any Inanian can remember. The Skeleton has been 
specially chosen for this high office since he does not 

have any system of 
his own. In fact, 
those doctors with 
stethoscopes and 
torches you see 
searching for some- 
thing around him 
have actually been 
looking for his sys- 
tem these many 
years. . .The only ter- 
rible thought is, that 
when they do find 
it, they will have to 
replace it inside the 
skeleton, and then 
we Inanians will lose 
our own Telephone 
System forever!" 
The Bull's massive 
hump began to shake with sobs. 

"Don't cry, dear Bull," said Alice. "That skeleton is 
almost a fossil and it is not at all likely that any one will 
find his system. So your Inanian Telephone System is 
absolutely safe for the next hundred years at least!" 

"You think so?" said the Bull, brightening up. 
"Come, I'll take you to Happy Colony." But as they 
walked on he stumbled over some twisted wires and 
nearly fell. "Whatever are these?" shuddered Alice 
as the wires immediately stood up and gyrated about 
them, whining an eerie song — 
Criss cross, criss cross — 
We're tangled, jangled wires. 
We cross, we criss — 
We light a thousand pyres! 

"Whatever do they mean?" whispered Alice as 
the wires glared malevolently at her, beady crosseyes 
agleam. 

"Let's get away fast," mumbled the Bull as he 
quickened his step. "These are criminal elements 
from the Cross Bar Exchange — responsible for the 
murder of thousands of telephones. Run!" he shouted 
as they streaked away, chased by the wires, "run!" 



15 



"What's a Cross Bar Exchange?" panted Alice, 
struggling to keep pace with the loping Bull. 

"Cross-eyed thug wires who tangle up telephones 
when they least suspect it, steal their dial tones, stran- 
gle them, and replace them with dummies!" puffed 
the Bull. 

The Cross Wires were soon left far behind and 
Alice was just beginning to breathe a sigh of relief 
when a spine-chilling laugh came echoing up the 
lonely river bank where thousands of funeral pyres 
blared and hundreds of people wandered in among 
them shouting to themselves, tearing their hair, 
screeching horribly and every once in a while jerk- 
ing together in a weird community dance. The Bull 
shook his head gloomily. 

"This," he said, "is the saddest sight of all in Tele- 
phone City. ..The Telephone Cremation Grounds. 
These poor people are close relations of the dead 
telephones who cannot face the ultimate fact of 
death. In this life," he continued wisely, "one must de- 
velop a certain detachment. See what can happen if 
you get too attached to an instrument?" Alice nodded 
gravely. 

As they walked away, tortured voices groaned, 
"Hullo! Hullo!... Wrong number?... Lines-are-down- 
please... No, no! Not the Dial Tone again! Please, 
please... it's urgent... Are-you-holding?... Yes? Speak- 
ing! God!... I loved that instrument! Why do the best 
have to go!... The Bills! Watch out for the Bills! All's 
lost. . .lost. . .lo-o-st. . ." 

"And here, at last," said the Bull, considerably 
cheered up, "is Happy Land." Alice saw everyone 
seemed happy at last. People smiled spontaneously as 
she passed and some even wished her the time of day. 
"Isn't this marvelous!" said Alice, "but how are they 
so happy?" "This, m'dear," said the Bull, "is Happy 
Colony — one of the most recently built suburbs of 
Telephone City. Here no one ever uses a telephone. 
There are no wires, no Cross Bar Exchange, and no 
dead telephones. People write letters to each other, 
and if there is something really important to say, they 
visit each other and transact their business. There are 
no telephone bills and no nervous ailments. These, 
my child, are the youngest generation of Inanians, 
and we old ones are thinking we should take a leaf 
out of their book and follow suit." 

Alice smiled politely. Maybe she would be able 
to talk this over with her cat Dinah and puzzle it out 
some day. 

POSTSCRIPT 

KL is grateful to Dr. Sanjay Sircar, who redis- 
covered these Alice-based social satires from India, 
tracked them down over some years, sent them to KL, 
and put us in touch with Mrs. Verghese, who retains 
the copyright. Here is the original bibliographic in- 
formation on the satires: 



1. "Alice in Plumberland," The Statesman — no other 

bibliographical details available. 

2. "Alice and the Sharks," The Sunday Statesman Maga- 

zine, August 1, 1971, p. 4. 

3. "Alice in Inania: Alice in the Blackout," Times 

Weekly, November 7, 1971, p. 1 1. 

4. "Hullo, Alice: Alice in Telephone City," Times of 

India, June 24, 1973, p. 8. 

5. "Alice in Inania: Alice at the Funeral," Times of 

India, April 26, 1978, p. 6. 

6. "Alice in Inania: A Bull's Eye View of Inanian At- 

titudes," Indian Express, April 6, 1991, p. 8. 

Numbers 5, 1, and 4 appear in this issue of 
KL; the remainder will follow in the next. KL has 
reordered the sequence of items to increase narrative 
coherence, and the author has no objection. 

(Thanks are due to Mr. Russell Latham of the 
National Library of Australia and Dr. Allen Thrasher 
of the Library of Congress for assistance in researching 
the above citations.) 

Dr. Sircar also sent us some thoughts on ephem- 
era, particularly Carrollian ephemera in the South 
Asian context; these follow below. 

The Indian Alice Satires: Carrollian 
Ephemera in the South Asian Context 
It is an unfortunate truth about any material that is 
not immediately contemporary, that if it is not in a 
bibliography (or a catalogue, at the very least), in ef- 
fect, it does not exist. (Even a book in English of In- 
dian folktales collected by my own great-aunt Tara 
Sirkar appears in no bibliography, simply because 
it was published in India, so I sent copies to Oxford 
University and to the Encyclopaedia of Marchen in Ger- 
many, and now it "exists," 40 years after her death.) 
Ephemera in particular only exist if they are in a col- 
lection or somehow listed, or both; and for various 
(largely financial) reasons, South Asian ephemera in 
particular often go silently into oblivion. 

Serendipity is a great and usually unhailed (be- 
cause unpredictable) force in research, and Mrs. 
Verghese 's Alice-hased work surfaced serendipitously. 
When I was looking for references to "Indian Chris- 
tians" on the World Wide Web in 2001 , 1 saw the name 
Jamila Verghese on the now defunct website indian- 
womenonline.com.* After more than one attempt, 
I contacted the editor of the site, asking her to pass 
my e-mail on because, in my childhood, when we saw 
the work of "Jamila Verghese" in the newspapers, my 
mother mentioned that she had known her in their 
childhoods in what is now Pakistan. 

My ensuing and extended correspondence 
with Mrs. Verghese emphasizes the importance for 

*The Internet article on Mrs. Verghese is still available at 
http://web.archive.Org/web/20010307082507/http://www. 
indianwomenonline.com/womenhome/HealingTouch/jamila/ 
jaml/jambot.htm. 



16 



research today of the Internet, of e-mail, and of the 
great gift of the scanner, with whose aid I was e-mailed 
the material directly in July 2005. All this correspon- 
dence would otherwise have taken even more years 
than it did, and over these years energies would al- 
most certainly have flagged, and searches fizzled out. 

In the vast unplowed tracts of valuable but 
uncanonized children's literature from the past, gen- 
erally strenuously ignored by academia, Alice-based 
works have a chance of being considered, since Car- 
roll for various reasons is "literature." It is sad that 
perhaps more worthwhile works sans such a validat- 
ing peg must remain largely unnoticed, but we must 
nevertheless be thankful for any exposure Carrollian 
works can muster. 

To be an A/Abased work from the West and to 
be an Alice-based work from the East are altogether 
different things. Broadly, the taken-for-granted pri- 
mary ownership of British culture by the U.K. means 
that that culture is the "inheritance" of Canada and 
Australia (for historical, political, racial, and linguis- 
tic reasons) and the United States (for linguistic rea- 
sons, and out of a positive pride in all cultural appro- 
priation when it suits). 

Collected ephemera are still ephemera, but now 
possessing (at least for the particular collector and 
likeminded enthusiasts) a significance and a use (be 
it aesthetic or informational) beyond that which they 
originally had (or inherently have). But when print 
ephemera are reproduced (in a different form from the 
original), they cease to be ephemera at all; they turn 
into whatever the opposite of that category is, and 
possess not just a new significance and potential use, 
but potentially also both a greater permanence and a 
wider ambit than hitherto. We shall see whether this 
is the case with the reprinting of Mrs. Verghese's Alice- 
based work here. 



However, regardless of any independent literary merit 
or interest that it might have, the very existence of the 
Carrollian material to hand, in and of itself, has cul- 
tural significance. For as intercultural popular culture, 
it constitutes a concrete example of the influence of 
Carroll (or English classic juvenile culture) in the 
nonwhite and not primarily English-speaking former 
British colonies, which we might otherwise need sim- 
ply to assume was the case (or was not, depending on 
our level of awareness about these colonies). And this 
material cannot be considered unless it is to hand, not 
just listed. Even if the interest of some potential read- 
ers were aroused by a list, getting items in newspapers 
that are in effect inaccessible in the West — and only 
accessible in archives in their country of origin, for 
that matter — would take more effort and resources 
than most readers could muster. 

I know there are juvenile "Alice imitations" in 
at least one Indian language (five Bengali juvenile 
classics), but I know of none in English (with or 
without Alice as a character) and of no other Alice- 
based satire from India in any language at all; hence I 
think its author's background of some significance. To 
be an Alice-based social satire in English from India, 
from a writer of Mrs. Verghese's community, is to have 
a different ontological status from the British locus 
classicus of the kind, Saki's Westminster Alice (1902) or 
such work from the U.S. as Michael Dylan Welch's A 
Vote for Alice (1988, 1992) on American politics. Mrs. 
Verghese takes it for granted that Carroll's work is as 
much an integral part of her culture as it is of that of 
anybody else who claims it. 

Mrs. Verghese has informed me that she has one 
or two additional Alice satires, which were not scan- 
nable and which she has not had time to transcribe. I 
am sure KL readers join with me in hoping that these 
also come to light. 




Splash panel from Pogo Sunday comic strip December 18, 1955 ©1 955, 2008 (H.I 'I 



17 



TO SEEK IT WITH THIMBLES: BRIEF ESSAYS ON LEWIS EARROLL 



MATTHEW DEMAKOS 



Whenever an author tries to bolster his or 
her grand theory about Lewis Carroll 
with supporting arguments containing 
the word surely or certainly, reader beware — more 
often than not, you are being had. The words are a 
tip-off that either some authorial delusion is at hand, 
or some authorial hokum is at play. Which is the 
worse of the two depends on the reader's mood. 

But oddly enough, the same is not true whenever 
the words almost certainly appear. These words are 
more commonly used by our more esteemed essay- 
ists. Paradoxically, where the qualifier almost would 
weaken the style of our theoretical essayist, the word 
serves to strengthen our trust in the esteemed essay- 
ist. Often, the latter is simply missing some insignifi- 
cant but obvious piece of the puzzle that would create 
a secure link. 

In many cases, the theorist does not even need to 
address the author's intent. His or her point is often 
even more interesting when left for the reader to 
ponder. Take, for example, the line "No birds were 
flying overhead" in Carroll's "The Walrus and the 
Carpenter." It could be annotated that the poem uses 
all the letters in the alphabet but one, and that letter, 
appropriate enough for a poem without any birds, is 
the letter jayl It may be intriguing to mention that 
even with the letter J's low frequency, only one out 
of every 277 poems of that length would not contain 
the letter J by chance alone. 1 But would it serve the 
annotator any better if he tried to pin the omission to 
some purposeful wordplay on Carroll's part? Would it 
be more worthy an annotation if he insisted that Car- 
roll — who spent a lifetime playing with words, codes, 
puzzles, and puns — surely hid this wry joke in his 
poem? The annotation, as insipid as it may already 
be, should stand on its own and would only do worse 
with self-delusions added. 2 

This is not to say that the question of intent 
should be taboo for the theorist. Rather it should be 
discussed in a less self-delusional or mock-self-delu- 
sional fashion than is too often seen. In fact, four of 
the eight essays below are exercises of a highly theo- 
retical nature. But they are styled in a way that does 
not insult readers who opt to take a contradictory 
view. Of the eight essays, five touch upon Carroll's 
writing and three upon his photography. 



1. A TINGLE TO A TOLL 

In The Hunting of the Snark, Carroll describes the ring 
of the bell with increasingly deeper sounding words. 
He uses the verb tingle in the second and third fits, 
moving to knell in the sixth fit, and ends with the verb 
toll in the seventh fit. The words fall from the short i, 
a relatively high sound, to the short e, a slightly lower 
sound, before they plummet to the long o, a much 
deeper sound. To further the effect, each verb is qual- 
ified by an adverb of mounting gravity (excepting the 
first use of the word tingle, which, rightfully, has no ad- 
verb). The words move from excitedly, angrily, and furi- 
ous, to the final and most finalizing solemnly — words 
with increasingly deeper tones as well. The original 
lines are (with fit and stanza numbers) : 

And that was to tingle his bell... (2:5) 

And excitedly tingled his bell... (3:2) 

As he angrily tingled his bell... (3:6) 

Till he woke to the knell of a furious bell... 

(6:18) 

And solemnly tolled on his bell... (7:6) 3 

As the words and sounds imply, the bell plays a 
progressively weightier role as the story unfolds. It 
is introduced in the second fit as a mere toy for the 
Bellman to tingle. In the third fit, it becomes a tool 
for quieting an unruly audience, and in the sixth fit 
it becomes an even more serious tool for stirring the 
Barrister out of his Snark-infested nightmare. Lastly, 
in the seventh fit, it takes on the poetically symbolic 
role of signaling the Banker's fate, a life of insanity, 
the death of a mind. Appropriately enough, the bell 
does not appear in the final fit, when silence is the 
overriding theme. 

2. THE PLACE AND PORTAL SWITCHEROO 

Carroll's first book of Alice's exploits is named for the 
place (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland) and the first 
chapter for the portal ("Down the Rabbit-Hole") . But in 
the sequel a switch takes place, and the book is named 
for the portal ( Through the Looking-Glass) and the first 
chapter for the place ("Looking-Glass House"). 4 The 
portals even have the same prepositional form and the 
same syllable count and hyphen placement: 

Down the Rabbit-Hole 
Through the Looking-Glass 



18 



This suggests a series of events. We know that the 
original title of the book was Looking-Glass House and 
subsequently Behind the Looking-Glass, 5 and we know 
that the opening chapter title was originally "The 
Glass Curtain." Since no glass curtain appears in the 
book, Carroll evidently made a change not only in 
theme, but in portal, and thus was in need of a new 
title for his opening chapter. Looking back at the style 
of Wonderland's opening chapter title, he may have hit 
upon "Behind the Looking-Glass," but immediately 
thought it a better book title. Still needing a title for 
the first chapter, he then may have decided to use the 
original book title, "Looking-Glass House," which is 
indeed penciled in over the scratched out "The Glass 
Curtain" on one early draft of the contents page.*' So 
it is quite likely that the prosaic "Down the Rabbit- 
Hole" chapter title inspired the poetic Through the 
Looking-Glass book title. 

3. GERTRUDE TOPLESS 

Readers all too familiar with Carroll's drawing of Ger- 
trude Chataway in her jersey and bathing shorts, and 
Carroll's photograph of her in the same, are likely 
unaware of the fact, discernible in his published let- 
ters, that Carroll also took photographs of the girl in 
her drawers only. "I feel I should be rather taking an 
unfair advantage of circumstances," he wrote, "if I re- 
tained that negative (much as I prize it) of Gertrude 
in her 'Swanage costume,' without knowing whether 
Mr. Chataway approves of it — as he had no oppor- 
tunity of pronouncing an opinion on the new sug- 
gestion. If he should wish it, I will erase those three 
negatives, after doing a print of each for you...." He 
describes the three negatives in a subsequent letter, 
"So I hope at least you will be in no hurry to have 
the negative (I mean the good one of the 3 in bath- 
ing-drawers: the other 2 I will erase forthwith) de- 
stroyed." The number of photographs taken (three) 
and the level of sensitivity (high) link the two letters, 
and consequently describe the same amount of dress. 
There was no need to discuss with Mr. Chataway the 
photograph of Gertrude in full bathing attire, a con- 
cept agreed upon prior to Gertrude's visit to Oxford. 
Hence, Gertrude's "Swanage Costume," named after 
the beach the Chataways visited the year after meet- 
ing Carroll, consists of drawers only, and is the "less 
dress" costume Morton Cohen suspects in his foot- 
note to the Letters. ' 

Other letters support this conclusion. Two writ- 
ten before the photographic session took place show 
that Carroll did not use the term "bathing-drawers" 
to mean a full-coverage bathing garment, as he writes 
"jersey and the bathing-drawers" in both. Two others, 
written three years later, show him interested in pho- 
tographing another girl in bathing-drawers only, and 
even describe the Sandown costume as a two-piece 
outfit. 8 The letter of October 28 to Mrs. Chataway 



shows that he did not take Gertrude fully nude: "My 
own idea would be to put them among the others I 
have done of the same kind (some in less dress)...." 
The photograph itself offers further support. It has a 
known image number, and is not the one that Carroll 
instructed his executors to destroy upon his death. 9 

It is quite obvious that Mrs. Chataway and Car- 
roll reached a compromise during the photographic 
session. That compromise was a topless Gertrude 
Chataway in what should properly be designated her 
"Swanage costume." 

4. THE CRINOLINE CONNECTION 

When Carroll wrote to John Tenniel, "Don't give Alice 
so much crinoline" (in an undated quotation from 
Collingwood's Life and Letters) , he was most likely not 
referring to the bubbling chess-piece dresses the artist 
had initially given Alice in five illustrations for Looking- 
Glass. In his Annotated Alice, Martin Gardner suggested a 
connection between Carroll's attitude about crinoline 
and the rejected dresses, but he used Carroll's state- 
ment "I hate crinoline fashion," which was actually writ- 
ten to Furniss many years later. As Frankie Morris has 
pointed out, the alteration of the chess-piece dresses 
was "a change in concept rather than style...." 10 

There are two possible explanations for Carroll's 
instruction to Tenniel. The first possibility is that it 
referred to the changes Tenniel did for The Nursery 
"Alice" (1889). In the Nursery Alice illustrations, all of 
Alice's dresses were redrawn with less crinoline. In fact, 
Carroll wrote his publisher in 1881, regarding that 
book, "Mr. Tenniel is going to make some changes in 
the figure of 'Alice'...."" A comparison between each 
original Wonderland illustration and its revised Nursery 
counterpart makes it clear that the amount of crino- 
line was reduced (along with some other changes), 
making the illustrations with Alice more than mere 
color versions of the originals. The second possibility, 
perhaps more likely, is that the words referred to Ten- 
niel's new commission for Looking-Glass, where the 
crinoline in Alice's dress (her regular dress, not the 
chess-piece dresses) is also noticeably less than that of 
the earlier book. This theory is supported by the fact 
that Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, the source for the 
quotation, combined the comment about the crino- 
line with another Carroll made about the whiskers on 
the White Knight, a character solely in Looking-Glass. 
Also, the phrasing — "Don't give Alice so much crino- 
line" — sounds more like a reference to a new work in 
progress than to an older work being revised. 

There is an outside possibility that Carroll's 
instruction referred to an illustration for Wonder- 
land. But it seems too direct a command for the 
unestablished author to make to the celebrated Punch 
illustrator, and if it was, Carroll evidently lost the ar- 
gument. 12 [This essay was developed from an observation 
made originally by Mark Israel] 



19 




Above, Wonderland. Below, The 
Nursery Alice. Center, Lynn Redgrave 
in an actual child's dress from circa 
1863. Doris Langley Moore, The 
Woman in Fashion, B. T. Batsford, 
LTD., London, 1949 



5. PHOTOGRAPHY SOFTLY VANISHED AWAY 

It is often stated that Lewis Carroll quit photogra- 
phy suddenly.™ In fact, he began quitting, one could 
argue, well before he slid his last plate from his cam- 
era in 1880. Taking his 25-year career in intervals of 
five, he exposed approximately 661 images in the first 
period, 874, 501, and 448 in the three middle peri- 
ods, and 299 images in the final period. The lower 
number in the final period is mostly attributable to 
the last two years, when he only spent about twelve 
and nine days, respectively, on his craft. 14 

There are other signs that he was easing up on 
his photography before taking his last portrait. First, 
before obtaining the use of the nearby Badcock's stu- 
dio in 1872 and his own rooftop studio a couple of 
years later, he was quite the traveling photographer, 
busily taking his cumbersome equipment with him 
throughout the British Isle; afterward, he rarely took 
his camera outside Oxford, last doing so in 1875. 
Second, he did not realize he had taken his last pho- 
tograph until a year or so later, having assumed he 
would continue the art, as seen in letters written in 
the summer of 1881; it was only in the last month of 
that year that he likely — and only likely — realized he 
had given it up for good. 15 Third, the last years show 
him being a bit stale creatively, a man going through 
the motions of the art more than advancing it in any 
meaningful way. He showed less variety in his ideas, 



depending on girl subjects and dress-up photogra- 
phy more than ever before. Fourth, he never took his 
camera to Eastbourne, his summer vacation resort 
beginning in 1877, effectively quitting photography 
in favor of writing well before 1880. 16 Last, about two 
years after Carroll took his last photograph, he began 
taking girls to professional photographic studios, a 
practice he would continue for the rest of his life — in 
a sense never really giving up the art at all. 17 

In one way or another, these facts advance the 
idea that he did not decide to quit photography, but 
rather softly, rather than suddenly, gave up his "one 
recreation." The use of the word suddenly seems a 
tactical strategy for those writers who wish to suggest 
questionable behavior on Carroll's part. 

6. THE JABBER-SNARK OPTION 

Carroll's "Jabberwocky" and The Hunting of the Snark 
are related, as Carroll states himself. 18 Many of the 
nonsense words in the former are used in the lat- 
ter. But they are also related by their optional rhym- 
ing scheme. In "Jabberwocky," Carroll rhymes the 
stanzas ABAB, or ABC C B, or, as in one case, A A BC C B 
(where the raised letters represent an inner rhyme). 
So when he opts to discard the odd-line rhyme, he 
always replaces it with an inner rhyme instead, retain- 
ing at least two rhymes per stanza. In Snark, Carroll 
allows himself the same option, but adds the A A BCB 



20 



scheme, which doesn't appear in the far shorter "Jab- 
berwocky." He takes the option 32 times in Snark's 
141 stanzas, first doing so in the ninth stanza of "Fit 
the First." 19 

Nowhere in the two poems does Carroll leave the 
reader short and not take the option. Only with this 
realization can the third line from "Jabberwocky" be 
scanned as Carroll intended: 

He took his vorpal sword in hand: 

Long time the manxome foe he sought — 

So rested he by the Tumtum tree, 
And stood awhile in thought. 20 

7. CARROLL'S URGE 

No one seems to have attempted to finish the sen- 
tence that the removal of the infamous page from 
Carroll's diary has left incomplete. Carroll began the 
entry for June 27, 1863, with the words "Wrote to Mrs. 
Liddell, urging her either to send the children to be 
photographed,...." 21 The comma is his; the ellipsis is 
not. The word urging may refer to the fact that he had 
neglected to photograph the children for three years 
(excluding a scenic view of the deanery and chapel 
with Ina and Alice casually appearing in the royal 
bedchamber window) ." Because it is difficult to imag- 
ine that Carroll had two separate issues worth urging 
upon Mrs. Liddell, it is likely that both halves of the 
sentence had to do with photography. Therefore, 
the word either probably refers to the often discussed 
question of location — that is, should they convene in 
either the deanery or in Carroll's rooms? In this case, 
however, the sentence could only allude to Badcock's 
studio — which Carroll had first used just a week be- 
fore. 23 The comma after the word photographed even 
allows for the possibility that he mentioned the secur- 
ing of the studio in his letter to Mrs. Liddell, draw- 
ing attention to the benefits of a more private loca- 
tion than photography in the deanery garden would 
allow. The new studio — which may have also been the 
impetus behind the request — would also allow him to 
avoid setting up a darkroom at the deanery, a point 
he may have thought Mrs. Liddell would appreciate. 
Thus, the diary entry may have begun with a sentence 
similar in style to the following: "Wrote to Mrs. Lid- 
dell, urging her either to send the children to be pho- 
tographed, and taken across to Badcock's yard, or to 
allow me to call at the Deanery with my camera &c." 

Of course, numerous possibilities remain. Some 
may deem it highly unlikely, for example, that Carroll 
would even suggest photographing at the deanery, 
with the advent of his new studio. In that case, the ei- 
ther/or could simply refer to how the children were 
to be sent: either by themselves, with an escort (Ina 
was now old enough to be escorted), 24 or with Mrs. 
Liddell herself. "Wrote to Mrs. Liddell, urging her ci- 
ther to send the children to be photographed, or to 
allow me to call and escort them myself." 



8. PUCK LOST AND FOUND 

The last two poems in Carroll's Three Sunsets and Other 
Poems are collectively titled "Puck Lost and Found." 25 
The first poem is an acrostic on Princess Alice and the 
second an acrostic on Prince Charlie. Carroll explains 
in the introduction that the two poems are the only 
ones in the book that were previously unpublished, 
having initially been inscribed in two books. Though 
the poems were written for two royal siblings, Carroll 
surely would have expected the real Alice to ponder 
the pairing of "Charlie" and "Alice," especially since 
she once had an acrostic created for her in a book 
as well. Lewis Carroll would certainly have expected 
Alice to decipher the message. 

1 Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-Glass and What 
Alice Found There (London: Macmillan, 1872), 72; 
Helen Fouche Gaines, Cryptanalysis (New York: Dover 
Publications, 1939, rpt. 1959). With the number of letters 
in the poem being 2,449 and the frequency of "J" in 
English being 0.23%, the poem has a 0.36 of 1% chance 
of not having the letter: (1 - 0.0023) 244 " = 0.0036 or 
1/277. 

2 It should be mentioned, however, that despite the lack 
of birds, this lipogram (the name for a work specifically . 
missing a letter) does have an occasional pig with wings. 

s Lewis Carroll, The Hunting of the Snark (London: 
Macmillan, 1876), 18, 27, 29, 68, 73. 

1 Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (London: 
Macmillan, 1865); Carroll, Looking-Glass. 

' For Carroll's first two titles of Looking-Glass, see Lewis 
Carroll, April 8, 1868, and January 12, 1869, Edward 
Wakeling, Lewis Carroll's Diaries: The Private Journals of 
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Clifford, England: The Lewis 
Carroll Society, 2001), 6:22, 76. Collingwood writes that 
Liddon suggested the final title, though it is unclear what 
he actually proposed. See Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, 
The Life card Letters of Lewis Carroll (London: T. Fisher 
Unwin, 1898), 138-39. 

6 For a facsimile of the contents page, see Matthew 
Demakos, "The Authentic Wasp," in Knight Letter 2, no. 
72 (Winter 2003): 18. No one has yet made much of 
the fact that Carroll's early chapter title was "The Glass 
Curtain." It mav be that Carroll's initial "floating idea" 
for a sequel — first expressed in a letter to Macmillan on 
August 24, 1866, in Morton Cohen, with the assistance of 
Roger Lancelvn Green, The Letters of Lewis Carroll (New 
York: Oxford University Press, 1979, 94)) — was about 
chess, and not the more Carrollian concept of a looking- 
glass. 

7 For the two quoted letters, see Carroll to Mrs. J. 
Chataway, October 28, [1876], and November 1, 1876 
(Cohen, Letters, 261, 262); for the concept agreed on 
prior to Gertrude's visit, see Carroll to James Chataway, 
April 13, 1876, Carroll to Gertrude Chataway, October 
20, 1876, and Carroll to Mrs. J. Chataway, October 

28, [1876], ibid., 249, 259. 261; for Cohen's footnote, 
see ibid., 260 nl. On October 21, five days before the 
photographic session look place, Carroll readdressed the 
idea of taking Gertrude nude, a matter that was broached 
on June 28 (ibid., 253, 260) but unsettled, as Gertrude's 
sister Alice passed away at I his time. 
s ( Ian oil to Gertrude Chataway, October 1 and 20, 1876, 
( :.u roll to Mrs. A. L. Mayhew, May 26, 1879, and Carroll 



21 



to A. L. Mayhew, May 27, 1879, Cohen, Letters, 258-59, 
337-341. 

The research presented here has persuaded Edward 
Wakeling to make a few corrections in his re-creation 
of Carroll's register. See Edward Wakeling, "Register of 
All Known Photographs by Charles Lutwidge Dodgson," 
in Roger Taylor and Edward Wakeling, Lewis Carroll, 
Photographer: The Princeton University Library Albums 
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), 272-73. 
Collingwood, Life and Letters, 130; Lewis Carroll to 
Harry Furniss, November 29, 1886, in Cohen, Letters, 
134; Martin Gardner, The Annotated Alice: The Definitive 
Edition (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000), 259; Frankie 
Morris, Artist in Wonderland: The Life, Political Cartoons, 
and Illustrations ofTenniel (Charlottesville: University of 
Virginia Press, 2005), 141. 

Lewis Carroll to Macmillan, August 17, 1881, in Morton 
Cohen and Anita Gandolfo, Lewis Carroll and the House of 
Macmillan (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 
162. 

For yet another possibility, see the pre-Alice figure Tenniel 
drew for Punch, January-June 1864, reprinted in Michael 
Hancher, The Tenniel Illustrations to the "Alice" Books 
(Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1985), 23. 
See, for example, Cathy Newman, "The Wonderland of 
Lewis Carroll," in National Geographic 179, no. 6 (June 
1991):127. 

See Wakeling, "Register," 240-75. Carroll's output was 
uneven throughout his photographic career. He spent 
about 30 days on photography in some years and only 
about 5 in others. Also, in the final year, he seems to have 
crammed in more images per day, 8 or so, an average 
equal to that of 1870 and 1874, for example, but far from 
the 3 images he averaged from 1876 to 1878. He appears 
to have been hastening in his later years, needing to 
spend fewer and fewer days on the craft, rather than 
having some renewed enthusiastic interest. 



For his expectations of continuing photographing after 
his last photograph of July 15, 1880, see Carroll to Mrs. 
P. A. W. Henderson, June 30, 1880, June 21, 1881, and 
June 30, [1881], in Cohen, Letters, 385-86, 434-35. 
Unpublished letters also support the concept that Carroll 
would revive his hobby. For quitting officially ("no subject 
tempting enough"), see Carroll to Mrs. Hunt, December 
8, 1881, in Wakeling, Diaries, 7:280 n511. 
Carroll, September 29, 1877, and August 2, 6, 12, and 24, 
1878, Wakeling, Diaries, 7:75, 128-30, 134. 
For the first recorded instance, see Carroll's diary for 
July 25, 1882, and for the last, see August 23, 1897 
(Wakeling, Diaries, 7:455, 9:334) . After the first instance, 
Carroll repeated the practice on at least six other days 
throughout his summer vacation in Eastbourne. 
Carroll to Mrs. J. Chataway, November 7, 1875, in Cohen, 
Letters, 233-34. 
Carroll, Snark, 7. 
Carroll, Looking-Glass, 22. 

Carroll, June 27, 1863, Wakeling, Diaries, 4:214. 
Carroll, June 23, 1863, ibid., 4:211. 
Wakeling, "Register," 254; for examples of the either/or 
location, see Carroll, November 21 and December 4, 
1862, Wakeling, Diaries, 4:146, 149. 
Carroll, April 17, 1863, Wakeling, Diaries, 4:192. Carroll 
writes of a river expedition, "Miss Prickett came (by Mrs. 
L's wish) with them. (I quite think that Ina is now so tall 
as to look odd without an escort)." 
Lewis Carroll, Three Sunsets and Other Poems (London: 
Macmillan, 1898). 




THE SAFEST WAY OF TAKING A LADY DOWN TO DINNER 



22 



■syH 




















leaves piom 
The Deaneny Garden 







Mr. Sellon (if I may address you as 
such), 

It has occurred to me that there is 
little-to-no visual media concern- 
ing Lewis Carroll. And shortly, or 
soon (depending on production 
and the cast) , one of the greatest 
tragedies involving our beloved 
Mr. Carroll will be featured on the 
big screen. 

I am speaking, of course, about 
"Phantasmagoria: The Visions of 
Lewis Carroll." While the title gives 
the impression that Mr. Carroll 
will finally be praised for his work, 
and the truth about his real iden- 
tity will be known, it is in fact quite 
the opposite. The truth is turned 
upside down in a film that has a 
purpose of only to "revolutionize 
the horror industry," so speaks the 
film's writer and star, Marilyn Man- 
son. Excuse me for being frank 
but, this production is wrong on 
so many different levels. 

On a happier note, I have cho- 
sen to write my own screenplay 
based on Mr. Carroll's diaries, 



letters, bank accounts, and photo- 
graphs. I am not asking for money, 
and I understand that this project 
requires much hard work and 
time, but I have a few questions. 
If you wouldn't mind answering 
them, they are as follows: 

1 ) I have been debating with my- 
self over whether to produce 
it as a screenplay for the big 
screen, or to produce many 
episodes and run it as a TV 
series. Your opinions? 

2) Thus far, my working title has 
been "Fragments of a Looking 
Glass." I think that this will 
draw the watcher's attention 
better than something more 
simple. Although, to be truth- 
ful I haven't come across any 
other titles. 

3) When I am able to scan 
through my own copy of the 
diaries et al. (should be some- 
where around November 11th 
or on Christmas) . I was won- 
dering what events would give 
the most insight to the viewer 



about the real Lewis Carroll 
other than the July 4th outing 
involving the Liddell sisters 
and his friend? 
As I am currently a senior in high 
school, I am aware that many 
people do not expect me to fin- 
ish such a project as this. But I am 
going against the grain and I am 
fully dedicated in these endeavors, 
and no matter how long it takes. 
Eventually, if not soon, there will 
be a movie or limited TV series 
dedicated to going beyond the 
myths and telling the truth of the 
man who was Reverend Charles 
Lutwidge Dodgson, better known 
as Lewis Carroll. 
Yours Truly, 
Britney Simmons 

Dear Ms. Simmons (I presume I 
may address you as such, and you 
may certainly address me as Mr. 
Sellon — otherwise I might not 
know you were talking to me!), 
First of all, thank you for your 
note describing your intentions 



23 



to create a faithful biographical 
film about Lewis Carroll, or rather, 
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson. We 
share your reservations about what 
Marilyn Manson is likely to do with 
the story, but we will all have to 
wait and see whether he produces 
anything constructive. Hopefully 
he will surprise us all pleasantly. 
But in his defense, the press in- 
formation about his project has 
resulted in sending more young 
people to the Internet to learn 
about Lewis Carroll, and to our 
site in particular. So even if the 
film turns out unpleasantly, some 
good has incidentally already 
come out of it. 

While I don't own a copy my- 
self, there was a 24-minute study 
made by Canadian filmmaker 
Andy Malcolm in 2004 called 
Sincerely Yours, Lewis Carroll. You 
might want to do some surfing 
and see if you can find yourself a 
copy of the DVD. I'm told that it is 
a very faithful and respectful look 
at a day in Dodgson 's life, so it 
might be of interest to you. There 
was also a 1980s feature film by 
the late Dennis Potter called 
Dreamchild about the relationship 
between Dodgson and Alice Lid- 
dell, as seen through the adult 
Alice's eyes. The film takes many 
Hollywood-style liberties with the 
facts (it's not loved by most Car- 
roll scholars), but it's an interest- 
ing piece nonetheless. It is out of 
print, but you might be able to 
pick up a used VHS copy on eBay. 
Sadly, it has not come out on 
DVD yet. There is an even earlier, 
shorter black-and-white British 
telefilm by Potter called Alice, 
which served as something of a 
rough draft for Dreamchild, but it is 
almost impossible to obtain, and 
it presents Dodgson in a near-mad 
light. While it is a fantasy in its 
own right, Potter's later Dreamchild 
is at least a kinder film. There are 
probably other obscure films out 
there as well; I confess that I am 
not an expert on Carroll in films, 
though some of our members are. 



With regard to your specific 
questions: 

1 ) Whatever medium you 
choose, you might want to 
take Andy Malcolm's example, 
and start small. Some scholars 
devote most of their lives to 
the study of Dodgson 's life 
and works, after all. 

2) There is already a biography 
of Dodgson called Fragments of 
a Looking Glass, by Jean Gat- 
tegno. Perhaps as you work 
on your project, a new and 
unique title will occur to you 
that you will like even better. 
Titles are important, but con- 
tent is the meat of the meal, 
after all. 

3) There are 10 volumes of the 
diaries, counting the index. 
You might want to start by 
seeing if you can find a used 
copy of the two-volume Let- 
ters of Lewis Carroll, edited by 
Morton Cohen; it's a nice 
sampling of Dodgson 's cor- 
respondence. Cohen's bi- 
ography of Dodgson is also 
excellent. You should have a 
look at the Links page on our 
website, and also take a look 
at the U.K. Society's site, if you 
haven't already — lots of good 
things on both sites. But you 
are right to seek out original 
source material wherever pos- 
sible, rather than opinions. 
After all, Marilyn Manson is 
not the only person out there 
with a potentially distorted 
perspective on Mr. Dodgson. 

Best wishes with your project! It's 
ambitious, but very worthy, and we 
hope someday to see the result. 

Sincerely, 

Andrew Sellon 



-*- 



bequeath rights to his ancestors or 

some other society? 

Thank you for your time, 

Linda Rea 

Clearance Coordinator 

"Bionic Woman" 

GEP Productions Inc. 

Hello, Linda! 

Yes, both Alices Adventures in Won- 
derland (1865/6) and Through 
the Looking-Glass and What Alice 
Found There (1871/2) went into 
the public domain many years 
ago, so if your script quotes from 
either book, there should not be 
any issue of copyright. Some of his 
writings, those that were not pub- 
lished until after his death, do still 
have copyright protection by his 
estate, but not the two Alice books. 
We would very much appreciate 
learning anything else you might 
care to share about the episode 
(basic synopsis, etc.) and the air 
date, if possible. That way we can 
share the information with our 
members so that they can tune in! 

Best wishes, 

Andrew Sellon 



Andrew, 

I am contacting you from the NBC 
television series "Bionic Woman." 
We will be shooting an episode 
in a few days in which Alice in 
Wonderland figures prominently. 
Do you know if this work is in the 
public domain? Did Lewis Carroll 



Dear Sirs/Madams: 
My name is Elaine J. Cohen. I was 
having breakfast with my grand- 
children and my daughter-in-law 
yesterday. The ages of the children 
are 19, 16, and 13. We were en- 
gaged in a lively discussion about 
authors. 

The 19-year-old is a university 
student. She made the statement 
that Lewis Carroll was on drugs 
when he authored Alices Adven- 
tures in Wonderland. I asked her 
where had she heard that and she 
replied from a teacher at the uni- 
versity. 

The 16-year-old stated that she 
had heard the same thing but had 
heard it was a myth. 

I was skeptical of there being 
any evidence that Lewis Carroll 
was under the influence of any- 
thing other than the fantasies of a 
vibrant mind. 



24 



My daughter-in-law then 
stepped up to reinforce the posi- 
tion of the 19-year-old and stated 
that, yes, Lewis Carroll was under 
the influence of drugs. 

As a result of that breakfast 
discussion, we are now going to do 
our own research and debate the 
question. 

I am looking for a credible 
source of information to help me 
support my suspicion that the 
counterculture of the 1960s cre- 
ated this myth to justify their use 
of recreational drugs, saying, in 
essence, that people of great cre- 
ativity in the past used drugs. 

I would greatly appreciate any 
guidance you can give on my 
journey to find Lewis Carroll in- 
nocent of the preposterous charge 
of being under the influence of 
drugs. 

It is my hope this project will 
result in my grandchildren having 
a healthy skepticism of the inter- 
pretation of research and opinions 
expressed in the academic com- 
munity of higher education. 

Sincerely, 

Elaine J. Cohen 

Mrs. Cohen, 

Thank you for your intriguing 
e-mail, which our webmaster 
forwarded to my attention. First 
of all, I congratulate you not just 
on challenging your grandchild's 
too-easy acceptance of unfortu- 
nate misinformation, but also on 
the fact that you're using this as 
an exercise for all your offspring 
to find their own answers. 

It is a pity that someone in a 
position of authority should pass 
on such lamentable nonsense. 
Statements like "Lewis Carroll was 
on drugs" are easy sideswipes to 
make, and unfortunately many 



people have made that one in 
particular, perhaps because their 
own limited imaginations do not 
permit them to conceive of a mind 
able to dream up such incredible 
worlds without artificial stimula- 
tion. Backing up a claim of drug 
use in Dodgson's case, however, 
will be impossible, as there is no 
evidence to support such 1960s- 
era drivel. Dodgson was a deacon 
of the Anglican Church, a deeply 
devout man who would have 
categorically disapproved of rec- 
reational drug use — as he did of 
children who exaggerated or will- 
fully misspoke. 

With regard to your quest to 
prove Dodgson innocent, I cannot 
resist quoting one of the Tweedles: 
"You've begun all wrong." As our 
communications director suc- 
cinctly pointed out after reading 
your e-mail, it might be healthy 
for your grandchildren to begin 
their investigations by reading 
up on one of the basic tenets 
of U.S. law — that a person is in- 
nocent until proven guilty, not 
the reverse. So I would begin the 
conversation again, and challenge 
them to find irrefutable evidence 
to support their claim. They'll be a 
long time looking. 

I should note that while the 
Internet is a remarkable tool for 
research, the unfortunate fact is 
that a good deal of content on 
the Internet is poorly researched, 
or not researched at all. So de- 
pending on where they look, your 
grandchildren might come across 
websites claiming that Dodgson 
was an inveterate drug user. 
We've seen and heard any num- 
ber of claims over the years as to 
what Dodgson was or wasn't, and 
did or didn't do. 

Proceed with caution when 
doing your research, and con- 
sider the source. Insist on evi- 
dence stronger than the sort that 
is presented in the courtroom at 
the end of Alice 's Adventures. You 
are best off exploring sites like 
ours and that of our U.K. sister 
organization, the first Lewis 



Carroll Society: www.lewis 
carrollsociety.org.uk. These sites 
have reliable factual information. 
You might also look at Morton 
Cohen's excellent biography. The 
members of our societies are peo- 
ple who have gone to the original 
sources — including reading the 
original letters and manuscripts 
and even speaking with surviv- 
ing relatives and friends of the 
Dodgson family, where possible. 

This is not to say that there is 
never disagreement among the 
scholars and enthusiasts who make 
up our organizations on some 
points where incontrovertible 
evidence is not currently available. 
And certainly more facts about 
Dodgson and his life may yet come 
to light, but between you and me, 
drug use is not likely to be one of 
them. While it could be said that 
he had a wild imagination, in real 
life he was a devout and abstemi- 
ous man, not generally known to 
partake of anything more than a 
glass of sherry, and does not de- 
serve to be maligned just because 
he may have had a better imagina- 
tion than one of your grandchild's 
instructors. 

Best wishes to you and your 
family on your research project. If 
nothing else, I think you'll all find 
that Charles Dodgson was a fasci- 
nating man, and will amply reward 
any time you spend exploring his 
life and works. 

Happy Hunting, 

Andrew Sellon 

[I have since received an update from 
Mrs. Cohen, indicating that the fam- 
ily members favoring the drug theory 
did indeed find it difficult to back 
up. At one point they were consider- 
ing iv het her perhaps Mr. Dodgson 
had migraines lasting a month at a 
time that might have required massive 
medication. . . ! -Ed. ] 



25 



MEMBERSHIP REPORT 

Welcome to everyone who has 
joined the LCSNA since the last 
AX: Su An Carey, Robert Gehret, 
Kimie Gertsch, Cynthia Gibson, 
Matt Heffernan, Kellie Kolenski, 
Rang Hoon Lee, Bridget Mahoney, 
Colin McCaig, Iain McCaig, Ber- 
nard Patten, Brandy Ross, Thomas 
Rodgers (whom I neglected 
to mention last time), Patricia 
Shogren, and Marie Valero. 
We currently have 282 members. 
This includes one Life* member 
(who wishes to be anonymous) 
and 27 Sustaining members. In ad- 
dition, 27 members contributed to 
either the Maxine Schaefer Chil- 
dren's Outreach Fund, the Stan 
Marx Fund, or the General Fund 
in 2007. The Society is very grate- 
ful for this high level of support. 

*Life memberships are obtainable 
for the small sum of $1,000, as 
formally approved at our October 
12 board meeting. 



nous fRoct) ihe lcsna secReiaRy 

JABBERING 



wm. 
E-MAIL COMMUNICATIONS 

E-mail is wonderful, but not to- 
tally reliable. For the past year, 
we have been sending dues and 
meeting notices via e-mail when- 
ever possible. Usually, this works 
really well, and the use of e-mail 
has saved the LCSNA a significant 
amount on postage, as well as time 
spent licking envelopes. But a few 
e-mails have disappeared in the 
cybersphere or languished in spam 
filters. Of course, people some- 
times change e-mail addresses, 
and sometimes computers break 
down and are never repaired by 
their relieved owners. There are 
also challenges at my end. My 
Internet service provider does 
not allow me to send a message to 
everyone at once, so I have had to 
break the address list into several 
groups and send a separate mes- 
sage to each group. Also, some of 
your service providers have spam 
filters that don't allow messages 
with several addresses in the "To:" 




field. (Different providers have dif- 
ferent cutoff levels for the number 
of addresses.) While these cases 
are the exception, not the rule, I 
apologize to everyone who has not 
received LCSNA communications 
in a timely manner. If you have any 
concern that you are not receiving 
e-mails that you should be, please 
write me via regular or e-mail at 
one of the addresses on the in- 
side front cover of this issue. And 
please, if you change your e-mail 
address, let me know. 



AND WHAT IS THE USE OF 

A LIST WITHOUT PICTURES 

AND CONVERSATIONS? 

So many times we hear of inter- 
esting auctions or exhibits that 
we'd like to tell members about, 
but can't because we don't have a 
quick and easy way of communicat- 
ing this information to interested 
members. So we are going to try a 
new means of communication, a 
new mailing list called, appropri- 
ately enough, LCSNA_News. 
This is a mailing-only list, i.e., mail 
will consist of only approved an- 
nouncements from the LCSNA. 
There may be some links to pic- 
tures, but there will be no con- 
versations! The list is restricted to 
LCSNA members, and no replies 
will be permitted. There will be no 
junk mail on this list, and no spam 
will be generated from or associ- 
ated with it. 



To ensure that only members who 
want this type of announcements 
will receive them, there is a sign- 
up procedure. LCSNA_News is 
part of Yahoo Groups, but you 
don't have to belong to Yahoo to 
join. Here are the easy steps to 
join without joining Yahoo. 

1. Send an empty email to 
LCSNA_News-subscribe@ 
yahoogroups.com. 

2. When you get a confirmation 
request back from Yahoo, 
don't respond by e-mail, but 
instead click the link. Then, 
on the next page, you will 
have two options: Don't click 
"Join This Group," but instead 
click near the bottom where 

it says, "Join Mailing List." 
(If you don't get a confirma- 
tion request back, check your 
spam mailbox, and/or let me 
know.) 

If you already belong to 
Yahoo, you can join here: 
http://groups.yahoo.com/ 
group/LCSNA_News/ . 
Click "Join this Group." 

It's all far easier to do than to ex- 
plain. (If you don't want to install 
the Yahoo toolbar, make sure to 
uncheck the offered box.) 

Once you have joined, there is 
nothing else to do, and you will 
receive occasional announcements 
of interest. If you have trouble 
joining, drop me a note and I'll 
add you. 



BOOK SALE 

The LCSNA book sale has been 
going great guns, but there are 
still some terrific bargains avail- 
able. Remember: Many of the 
sale books are not listed on our 
website. See p. 39 of AX 78 for a 
complete list of what is available. 
(The Moser Snark and the Dixon 
Deluxe Snark are gone, however, 
and a couple of other books are 
in exceedingly short supply.) To 
order, write to August Imholtz at 
imholtz99@atlantech.net or at the 
address in AX 78 — he will advise as 
to availability. 



26 



m 

BOOK SALE CORRECTION 

The Kaufman Limited Edition, 
which was listed in the last KL for 
$25, should actually have been de- 
scribed as the Subscribers Edition, 
and the special member price 
is $40, not $25. This is a limited 
edition of 395 copies, in a slipcase. 
It is hand-numbered on the colo- 
phon, which is signed by Martin 
Gardner, Charles Mitchell, Selwyn 
Goodacre, and Roderick Stine- 
hour (designer). Included in the 
slipcase is a separate portfolio of 
all Holiday's distinctive drawings. 



AN ETERNAL QUESTION: 
WHEN ARE DUES DUE? 

Traditionally, we send dues notices 
on or around May 4, the anni- 
versary of Alice Liddell's birth, 
although you may see them earlier 
(in conjunction with a meeting 
notice) or even a little later in the 
year. Some members find it easier 
to work within a calendar year, and 
send their dues in January. This is 
perfectly acceptable! 



However, prompt payment of dues 
after the notices go out makes 
bookkeeping much easier for the 
Secretary (who is, however, quite 
cognizant of all the other items in 
our lives competing for attention, 
and can be quite forgiving!). 

m 



JAM TOMORROW? 

I fear this issue's column has been 
too much jabbering and too little 
jam. I hope for better balance 
next time. 



BREWSTER IN QUANWMLAND 

BREWSTER MEETS THE SCHRdDMGER 
CAT WHO UVES IN A BOX. 



"I FOUND THE 5CHRODINGER DOG," 

SAYS BREWSTER. "I'LL PUT HIM IN 

YOUR BOX SO YOU WON'T BE LONELY." 



"I'LL PEEK (N THE BOX LATER," 

THINKS BREWSTER." TO SEE HOW 

THE CAT IS DOING." 



mown// 




BREWSTER IN QUANWMLAND 

BREWSTER MEETS MATTER AND 

ANTIMATTER. "PLEASE EXCUSE ME," 

SAYS BREWSTER. "I NEED TO GET BY." 



OOPSf 




"NO! WE MUSWT 
TOUCH" SAYS 
MATTER, "OR 
WELL .„ 




"OR YOU Li 
WHAT?" ASKS 
BREWSTER. 
BUT NOW IT 
LOOKS LIKE 
HELL NEVER 
KNOW. 




BREWSTER IN QU ANWMLAND 

y — 



"ARE YOU AN EGG?" 
ASKS BREWSTER. "NO, 
I'M A QUARK," SAYS TH, 
STRANGER. 




"YOU SURE LOOK LIKE AN 

EGG" SAYS BREWS TER. 

"NO," SAYS QUARK. "I'M, 

a A SUBATOMIC ... 

UHH ,„ WHAT'S 

THAT THING?" 




"FOR AN EGG, 

HE SURE 
TALKED A LOT,' 

THINKS 
BREWSTER AS 
HE EATS 
OMELET. 



TASTES 
STRINGY 




See Brewster Rockit item on page 50 



27 






Ravings \.woo rhe Waning Desk 



OF ANDREW SELLON 



First of all, a round of raves to all who made our 
fall meeting in Seattle such a success: to speak- 
ers Tommy Kovac, Iain McCaig, Jack Prelutsky, 
and Alan Tannenbaum; to Colin and Carol McCaig for 
providing a school for the Maxine Schaefer reading and 
other local assistance; to Laura Higgins, Michael Welch, 
Cindy Watter, the Imholtzes, Rick Simonson (of Elliott 
Bay Books) and Mawganne Edwards (of Tulio Ristorante) 
for all manner of facilitation; to Louis Collins for ensuring 
that we were part of the mayor's official Book Collecting 
Week proclamation, for providing 
our members with free admission to 
the Seattle Antiquarian Book Fair, 
and for introducing us to the delight- 
ful, resourceful, and endlessly gener- 
ous Jodee Fenton at Seattle Public 
Library, without whom our Seattle 
meeting simply would not have hap 
pened. Not only did Jodee work with 
me tirelessly over a period of months 
to arrange every minute detail of the 
meeting, she even led our members 
on a private guided tour of the mag- 
nificent Rem Koolhaas-designed li- 
brary. Thank you all! 

My second raving is brief but no 
less enthusiastic: Our members-only 
hardcover publication of La Guida 
di Bragia made it out just before the end of 2007, and in 
my opinion is a resounding success. Congrats to Mark 
Burs tein, Jonathan Dixon, Andrew Ogus, and all involved! 
I'm already eagerly anticipating our 2008 members-only 
publication, Lewis Carroll: Voices From France. 

My next raving is about nothing less than our Society's 
fundamental reason for being. While I think most of us 
never lose sight of it, it was highlighted for me by three 
recent events: a review of a children's book, a theater audi- 
ence talkback session, and an e-mail from a grandmother. 
You can read about all three in detail in other parts of 
this issue; here, I want to focus on what they have in com- 
mon: the ongoing need to clear up misinformation about 
Charles Dodgson/Lewis Carroll. In brief, the illustrator of 
a recently published children's book jokingly pretended to 
have discovered a word scribbled in Dodgson's diaries, an 
action that prompted mild amusement from some mem- 
bers and outgribing from others. It might have gone oth- 

28 




erwise unremarked by the general public, but the reviewer 
for the New York Times took the jest as gospel, and the next 
day a website blog quoted that review, hailing this fascinat- 
ing new "fact" about Mr. Dodgson, with replies from blog 
readers eager to spread the word about this revelation. 
Like a variation on Dodgson's facetious description of the 
process of uitoring a far-removed pupil, so begins the los- 
ing game of misinformation for real. Next, at a talkback 
session after a recent play about Lewis Carroll and Alice, 
the first question the audience asked me was about our 
stance on the question of Dodgson 
and pedophilia. And then there's the 
grandmother who sent an e-mail ask- 
ing us to help her defend Lewis Car- 
roll to her daughter and grandchild, 
as the grandchild had been told by 
a teacher that Lewis Carroll was on 
mind-altering drugs when he wrote 
his famous works, and the daugh- 
ter insisted she had heard the same 
thing, so it must be true. 

From my perspective, we're 
not here to engage in celebrity 
srhackdowns, but we are most cer- 
tainly here to step in and set the re- 
cord straight to the best of our cur- 
rent knowledge. Being "keepers of 
the flame" is sometimes a thankless 
task, to be sure. Those who don't like being politely cor- 
rected may call us a cult of dusty Victorian acolytes, or em- 
ploy other such unimaginative twaddle. We can take it. In 
this age, dominated by the hilariously misnamed genre of 
"reality television," in a world where "news" papers and pro- 
grams vie for juicy headlines rather than facts, and virtually 
everything laid before the public, no matter how prepos- 
terous, is eagerly lapped up as "truth," it is more important 
than ever that we not only share information about the life 
and works of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson with the public, 
but also keep an eagle eye out for purported "realities" and 
"truths" that need to be constructively corrected. I know 
that we can all carry that torch responsibly and respectfully. 
And I suspect that Mr. Dodgson would have done the same 
for any of us. 

Best regards, 







tietiej 







Sanjay Sircar writes: This is one 
of three witty illustrations by Jesse 
Lefkowitz that accompany an 
article in EW.com (from Entertain- 
ment Weekly) by Stephen King, "J.K. 
Rowling's 'Ministry of Magic.'" 



M 

J 



Lefkowitz's Alice is now sans 
sister, and the book at hand is now 
emphatically one with pictures 
(at any rate, an appealing cover) 
and conversations, hence Alice 
is so engrossed that she does not 
feel sleepy and stupid. Hence she 
seems to be ignoring (or oblivi- 
ous to) the White Rabbit, and 
rather than a trip to Wonder- 
land, she chooses a metaphorical 
journey-by-reading to a different 
wonderland, a fantasy fiction 
quite different from Carroll's. The 
image clearly evinces the influ- 
ence of Disney rather than straight 
Tenniel, although the expression 
on Alice's face is much less deco- 
rous and more modern than that 
of Disney's Alice. 

It is safe to say that Alice oc- 
cupies a place, however marginal 
and tokenistic, within "high cul- 
ture;" it is unlikely that Harry Pot- 
ter ever will, for all that there are 
academic seminars on Rowling's 
books. Carroll's work and Rowl- 



ing's do not immediately appear 
to have much in common. The 
invocation of Alice by both the 
illustration and King's text might 
thus serve (be it by accident or 
intention) to associate the Potter 
books with Alice and thus gather 
for the contemporary work a mea- 
sure of either gravitas or grace by 
association, or both. King delin- 
eates part of the appeal of Rowl- 
ing's work thus: "And, of course, 
there was the magic. It's what kids 
want more than anything; it's what 
they crave. That goes back to the 
Brothers Grimm, Hans Christian 
Andersen, and good old Alice, 
chasing after that wascally wabbit." 
Note again the placing of Carroll 
and modern American pop cul- 
ture on the same level; Carroll's 
timid, decorous W. Rabbit Esq. is 
anything but rascally. 

King also notes Rowling's bring- 
ing "adults into the reading circle 
...[a] phenomenon ... associated 
mainly with British authors," and 
comments, "Alice in Wonderland 
began as a story told to 10-year-old 
Alice Liddell by Charles Dodgson 
(a.k.a. Lewis Carroll); it is now 
taught in college lit courses." 
Here, the automatic association 
of literary worth with adulthood 
in general and being taught at 
tertiary level might be open to 
question. 

oJffa 
Translator Juan Gabriel Lopez 
Guix recounts the challenges 
and rewards of translating in 
"The Translator in Aliceland: On 
Translating Alice in Wonderland 
into Spanish," which appears as a 
chapter in The Translator as Writer 



(Susan Bassnet and Peter Bush, 
eds., Continuum, 2006). Lopez 
Guix admits feeling somewhat 
daunted by his task because AATW 
had already been translated into 
Spanish some 40 times. He refused 
to read any of the previous ver- 
sions until he had found his own 
solutions to the difficulties he en- 
countered. Most problematic were 
translations of poems and of un- 
usual concepts such as caucus race 
and treacle well, and the fact that 
the genders of the characters were 
often different, grammatically, in 
Spanish. When choosing the level 
of his language, Lopez Guix felt 
the most important thing was to 
preserve the book's "read-aloud 
quality." Though he eschewed 
translators, he depended on the 
critics who had gone before him, 
especially Martin Gardner. Lopez 
Guix stresses that every translation 
offers a new reading of the text, 
and helps the original reveal its 
qualities. For example, he came 
to feel that the traditional Spanish 
title, Alicia en El Pais de Las Mara- 
villas [Alice in the Land of Marvels] 
is misleading, because it gives no 
sense of Alice wondering, being 
confused and puzzled, and feeling 
curiouser and curiouser. His pub- 
lisher insisted on retaining the tra- 
ditional title, but Lopez Guix was 
able to add a note expressing his 
dissent. Near the end of the pro- 
cess he created an e-mail group 
of Alice translators, and invited 
several to tea, at which they dis- 
cussed translation problems and 
the solutions they found. Lopez 
Guix's translation was published 
by Ediciones B in 2002. 



29 



The Later Library of Jerome Kern auc- 
tion catalog (Parke-Bernet Gal- 
leries; October 16, 1962) lists a 
"curiously inscribed copy" of Alice's 
Wonderland Birthday Book, compiled 
by E. Stanley Leathes and pub- 
lished in 1884. According to the 
catalog, the book is "Inscribed by 
Lewis Carroll in purple ink on the 
half-title: 'E. G. T. from Humpty- 
Dumpty, May 7, 1844.' Above this 
is an inscription in another hand 
reading, 'Lewis Carroll gave me 
this book in 1884. As he wrote, he 
absentmindedly put the year of his 
birth.'" (The catalog then men- 
tions that Carroll was born in 1832, 
not 1844.) This strangely inscribed 
copy is also noted in Dodgson at 
Auction (D&D Galleries, 1999, Item 
No. 2520) . Does anyone know the 
whereabouts of this book, if the 
inscription by Carroll is genuine, or 
whether E. G. T is Carroll's friend 
E. Gertrude Thomson, who illus- 
trated Three Sunsets and Other Poems? 

And here is a different sort of 
query. Mr. Patrick Brady of Long 
Beach, California, writes: Would 
any LCSNA member be interested 
in composing a score for a libretto 
reinterpreting AAUG? My thesis 
is that the King and Queen of 



Hearts in Underground are based 
on, respectively, the pre-Raphaelite 
paintings Regina Cordium (1860) 
by Dante Rossetti and The King of 
Hearts (1862) by William Hunt (the 
latter portrays Hunt's nephew as 
Henry VIII amid croquet balls). 
The King and Queen's soldiers are 
based on the pre-Raphaelites' Art- 
ists Volunteer Rifle Corps formed 
in 1860. (If interested, please write 
to muldoone99@yahoo.com and 
we will put you in touch with Mr. 
Brady.) 

Several responses were received 
to the Query in the last issue: Why 
would a lower-class girl like Mabel 
have more lessons to learn than an 
upper-class girl like Alice? 

® I'm afraid this is a reflection of 
Carroll's snobbery; like most of 
the English at that time, he was ex- 
tremely class-conscious and elitist. 
Mabel is of the lower classes, there- 
fore she must be less intelligent 
and need more lessons to make up 
for this lack. Jenifer Ransom 

® My theory is that if Mabel did 
well in her studies, she could get 
a job as a governess rather than a 
servant. Whereas Alice would only 



(93 AUCTION NOTICE 5<5^ 



"The time has come," 
the Walrus said, 
"To donate many things. 
Rare books — and art — 
and artifacts: 
an auction fit for kings." 

The LCSNA will be holding an 
auction on Saturday, April 26, 
2008, in conjunction with our 
spring meeting. Donations of 
Alice/Carroll-related books, 
art, and artifacts should be sent 
to LCSNA Auction, c/o August 
Imholtz, 11935 Beltsville Drive, 
Beltsville, MD 20705, by April 7. 



30 



The auction rules and item list 
will be available on our website 
(www.lewiscarroll.org) as of 
approximately April 12. If you 
do not have Web access, and 
would like a printed copy of 
the auction item list, please 
mail a request to the address 
above. We thank you in advance 
for kindly supporting this effort, 
which will benefit the LCSNA's 
future projects. 



need to know enough to be an 
upper-crust wife. Sarah Adams 

® Doesn't Mabel have so many 
lessons to learn because the poor 
thing's so very ignorant? Devra 
Kunin 

® Mrs. Liddell was anxious to 
marry off her daughters as high 
in society as possible. She knew 
that most of the tufters at Christ 
Church were not particularly 
bright and that a well-educated 
wife would be an embarrassment 
to them. John Docherty 

® This is a function more of 
Alice's class status than Mabel's. If 
Alice thinks she "must be Mabel," 
then it is incumbent upon her to 
learn a lot of lessons and bring the 
newly acquired Mabel personal- 
ity up to speed with the expecta- 
tions that Alice as a member of 
the upper class must fulfill. Jason 
Duran 






Please submit your Notes, Queries, 
and Responses to muldoone99@ 
yahoo.com with the subject line: 
Knight Letter N&Q. All topics 
pertaining to the life and works of 
Lewis Carroll/Charles Dodgson 
are valid. Selection and publica- 
tion of reader submissions will 
be solely at the discretion of the 
editor. 




"As the Moon Loses Its Smile" 
Deborah P. Kolodji 
Lured in by a smile 
I followed the alien pied piper 
into the ship bay. 

From a wall in the Louvre 

the Mona Lisa must be smirking— 

I've been scammed. 

Somewhere a child is reading 

about Alice and the Cheshire Cat 

I'm seeing a grin 

without a human face behind it 

and I'd much rather be 

in a rabbit hole. 

I've heard old re-runs play 
in the depths of space 
"Smile, 

you're on candid camera' 

On launch night 

the quarter moon beamed 

for awhile 

until we passed it 
solid and round 
growing 
smaller 
until 

disappearing from portholes — 

our smiles lost 
to the earth 



"As the Moon Loses Its Smile" originally 
appeared in a small-press fantasy 
magazine, Tales of the Talisman, December 
2006 (vol. 2 #3), which can be ordered 
from www.genremall.com. Nominated 
for this year's Rhysling Awards for best 
short and long science-fiction poem, given 
each year by the Science Fiction Poetry 
Association, it is also collected in The 2007 
Rhysling A nthology, The Best Science Fiction, 
Fantasy & Horrm Poetry of 2006, ed. Drew 
Morse, published for the SFPA. Copies 
are available to nonmembers for $12.95 
and $2.00 postage, from Helena Bell, 
SFPA Treasurer, 1225 W Freeman St., #12, 
Carbondale, IL 62901. 



"&&& 



Journalists, in particular, are for- 
ever inventing expressions, simply 
to see how long it is before others 
are using them as if they're a long- 
established part of the language. If 
you're lucky, it doesn't take more 
than a few weeks to invent a word 







and find it passing into everyday 
usage. ... There is something 
Humpty-Dumptyish about the 
way the English language is used; 
words can mean whatever the user 
wants them to mean. 

From The English, Jeremy 
Paxman, p. 236. The Overlook 
Press, 2000. 



The congruence of the Marx 
Brothers' comedy and the go- 
ings-on in Alice in Wonderland had 
been noted over and over in the 
Marxes' professional lives. What 
went unnoticed was the growing 
similarity between Groucho and 
Lewis Carroll himself. 

From Groucho, The Life and 
Times of Julius Henry Marx, by 
Stefan Kanfer, p. 303. Knopf, 2000. 



-^r 



My mother — who never remi- 
nisced — read to me before I could 
read for myself, and so I wanted 
to be a writer before I could read. 
And what my mother read was the 
literature of the past. One day my 
aunt came into the room and said, 
"What are you reading to him?" 
"Through the Looking-Glass," my 
mother said. 

"What's it about?" my aunt asked. 
"I wish I knew," my mother said. 
And I was hooked right there. I 
had assumed my mother knew 
everything, but these pages had 
depths she hadn't plumbed. 
Young Adult writer Richard Peck, 
in his Zena Sutherland lecture, 
quoted in The Horn Book, 
November /December 2007, p. 619. 



"I used to feel like the White King 
looking on bemused while the 
Red Queen laid about her. Now it 
seems we shall all turn out to be 
nothing but a pack of cards." 

He didn't wait for her to reply; 

Gramercy felt more like Alice 

every minute. 

From The Leto Bundle, a novel 
by Marina Warner. Farrar, Straus 
and Giroux, New York, 2001. 



IK 

ALICE TO CAT 

Candace Orcutt 

(And if he left off dreaming 

about you, where do you suppose 

you'd be? — Tweedledee) 

The singing surface of this pol- 
ished sound 
Works deceptions in the late hour. 
If you were real and I were real, 

On this music more would float 
than flat reflections 

Of you and me, and tiny lamp- 
assaulting moths 

Ruining their dark, archaic silk. 

We only listen in the Red King's 
dream — 

Then watch, cat, in this shallow 
mirror of music, 

While the Red King sleeps behind 
the looking-glass, 

Certain in his slumber that his 
dreams are real. 



"Alice to Cat" originally appeared in the 
February 2007 issue (vol. 30 #2) of Blue 
Unicorn, on p. 27. The magazine's address 
is 22 Avon Rd, Kensington, CA 94707; the 
e-mail address is staff@blueunicorn.com. 
A copy is $7.00 (plus $2.00 postage for 
addresses outside the U.S.). 



"He's as mad as a March Hare!" 
"Madder!" cried Mrs. Gamp. "A 
deal madder!" 

From Martin Chuzzlewit, Charles 
Dickens, Chapter XL\T, written 
and serialized in 1843-1844. 



31 



ALL MUST HAVE PRIZES 

JOEL BIRENBAUM 



In my last collecting column, which was paradoxi- 
cally my first collecting column, I asked the read- 
ers what topics they would like me to tackle. I was 
a bit perplexed by the lack of response and wondered 
what to do. When in doubt, I always look to the text 
(Alice, of course) for guidance, and as usual it hit me: 
"start at the beginning." In the beginning, these two 
magnificent texts inspired people to create all manner 
of related items, and long after that, others were in- 
spired to acquire these items, so it seemed a 
good idea to write about the earliest non- 
book Alice collectibles from 1865-1900 or 
thereabouts. "Thereabouts" is a wiggle 
word to account for the fact that some 
items cannot be dated precisely. 

The question then was how to 
identify the very first collectibles? I 
reached out to my fellow collectors, 
and the first advice I got from several 
sources was to look through The Hand- 
book of the Literature of the Rev. C. L. Dodgson 
(Lewis Carroll) by Williams and Madan (WM), 
but definitely not the edition revised by R. L. Green 
(WMG) or the further revised edition by Denis Crutch 
(WMGC). Since the book deals almost entirely with 
publications, I didn't realize that the supplement ti- 
tled "Parodies, Imitations, and Miscellanea" actually 
cited many of the earliest collectibles. The reason I was 
told not to use WMG or WMGC was that the section 
including collectibles had been dropped. One might 
ask why it was dropped, but I am sure that Green and 
Crutch, being prudent chaps, realized that maintain- 
ing this section would be an eternal nightmare. (No- 
body knows this more than I.) At any rate, this illus- 
trates the usefulness to a collector of a good reference 
library and also the caveat that the latest edition of a 
reference book isn't always the right one for the job. 

The first Alice items we come across are all music- 
related. I was told that Songs from Alice, written by Car- 
roll, with music by Boyd (1870) [WM 60-63], is often 
called the first piece of Alice merchandise. Another 
piece of music, The Wonderland Quadrilles (1872) [WM 
692], was composed for the pianoforte by C. H. R. 
Marriott, and may be the first Alice in color. Let me 
note for the record that she is wearing a pale pink 
dress. This is not a common item, so some of you may 




be more familiar with the undated postcard bearing a 
picture of the cover, published by The Pierpont Mor- 
gan Library. Looking-Glass music came quickly on the 
heels of the book's publication, as evidenced by The 
Looking-Glass Quadrille (1872) [WM 693], The Walrus 
and the Carpenter (1872) [WM 694], and The Jabbenvock 
Quadrille (1874) [WM 695]. No doubt Lewis Carroll's 
poetry in the Alice books struck a chord with contem- 
porary composers. 

A form of ephemera that is most suited 
to Carroll's Alice books is the political car- 
toon. The multitude of character arche- 
types have been used to show those in 
the political arena in a less than flat- 
tering light. The Mad Tea Party and 
Tweedledum and Tweedledee are prob- 
ably the images most often depicted to 
illustrate the public's displeasure with 
those in power and those running for of- 
fice. The first such cartoon, however, was 
"The Waggawock" in Punch (March 16, 1872; 
see opposite page) [WM 848], which dealt with 
the Tichborne case. The second instance was Alice in 
Bumbleland, which appeared in Punch (March 8, 1898) 
[WM 849] and was drawn by Tenniel. If you know of 
any others from this era, I would be delighted to dis- 
seminate the information. 

The earliest known Alice artwork is a painting by 
Samuel Sidley (1829-1896), 52 cm x 44 cm. A golden- 
haired girl sits contentedly in an armchair in a Victo- 
rian drawing room. On her lap she holds a copy of a 
red cloth book titled Alice in Wonderland. The book is 
open, and one can see the Mock Turtle, Alice, and the 
Gryphon. The editions of Alice and Looking-Glass pub- 
lished by Conkey, Chicago, ca. 1900, both use the illus- 
tration as the frontispiece. A hand-colored mezzotint 
print titled Alice in Wonderland, engraved by George H. 
Every, based on this painting, was published by Arthur 
Lucus in 1875. 

I was racking my brain to think of a nineteenth- 
century figurine, but to no avail. Again my reference 
library (which apparently I rarely look at) came to the 
rescue. Listed in Lewis Carroll 1832-1932: Catalogue 
of an Exhibition at Columbia University to Commemorate 
the Birth of Lewis Carroll is item 329, Tweedledum and 
Tweedledee carved in ivory under Carroll's direction 



32 



and presented by him to "Alice," It was from the col- 
lection of Owen D. Young, Esq. I believe the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art in conjunction with the New 
York Public Library produced a replica of the figurine 
in 1988. In Beyond the Looking Glass by Colin Gordon 
(page 236), there is a photo of an Ugly Duchess and 
a Walrus and Carpenter that appear to be made of 
plaster, which belonged to Alice Liddell Hargreaves. 
These possibly could be pre-1900 figurines. 

Catalogs are another fine source of information 
for the collector, though they are a bit cumbersome 
to search through if you have very many of them. In 
a list by booksellers M & D Reeve (undated), item 1 
is a silk place marker (1874) with a color illustration 
after Tenniel of Father William by MR (unidentified 
initials). The piece also has two stanzas written below 
the illustration. Madan lists four doilies [WM 824] 
with drawings by Miss Everest (1879). These items are 
products of a Victorian cottage industry, and it is in- 
teresting to speculate how many others there were. 
I know that I have seen 
similar items listed in 
catalogs, but I can't find 
them now. Today we are 
witnessing a new explo- 
sion of cottage indus- 
try Alice products as the 
computer allows people 
to take images and print 
them on all sorts of sur- 
faces. There are home- 
made trading cards, al- 
tered art, t-shirts, mouse 
pads, jewelry, coasters, 
ribbons, postcards, em- 
broidery, and printed 
cloth bags, to mention * 
a few. It is impossible to 
keep up with the flood of this type of collectible. 

Until researching this column, I was unaware of 
the existence of a set of 42 (that number sounds fa- 
miliar) glass magic lantern slides. The slides are in 
a wooden box with a paper label: "From A. Franks, 
Manufacturing Optician, Kings Street & 95, Deans- 
gate, Manchester." It is from this address that the 
seller dated them to ca. 1880. The slides are not in 
color, measure S l A x 314 inches, and have "Alice in 
Wonderland" in the top-left corner and "By Permis- 
sion Macmillan 8c Co." in the top-right corner. The 
more common Primus slides are part of the Primus Ju- 
nior Lecture Series produced by W. Butcher & Sons, 
London (1870-1906). There are 24 in this set, and 
they were sold in three boxes of eight slides at about 
fifty cents per box. These slides are brightly colored, 
and like the first edition of The Nursery Alice, were no 
doubt more suitable to American taste. If you can't get 
a copy of the slides, you can get a copy of Alice in Won- 




THE MONSTER SLAIN." 



derland with illustrations from the slides, published by 
Abrams in 1988. There is an introduction by Brian 
Sibley, who dates the slides between 1893 and 1898. 

Theater productions of Alice are a never-end- 
ing source of ephemeral collectibles. The "Theatre 
Flimsy" [WM 705] for the first stage Alice, by H. Saville 
Clarke, is an advertising poster for the production at 
the Prince of Wales' Theatre on December 23, 1886. 
This was illustrated by Ellen Whitehead and printed 
on thin rice paper by R. O. Hearson, and must have 
been very fragile, as few examples exist. Madan fur- 
ther states, "The design can be seen in a much re- 
duced form in an engraving from another copy on 
paper (?) at p. 255 of Collingwood's Life and Letters of 
Lewis Carroll, where there is a note about it." ("Why is 
a rice paper flimsy more valuable than a plain paper 
one?" asked Alice. "Because it is flimsier, of course," 
replied the Hatter.) Madan also listed programs for 
performances at Oxford in 1895 [WM 710] and the 
Royal Globe Theatre in London (1888) [WM 860]. A 

great reference book with 
a listing of Alice perfor- 
mances is Lovett's Alice on 
Stage (Meckler, 1980). One 
would imagine that there 
were programs and local 
advertising associated with 
each of them. 

For years I thought 
that the first Alice card 
game was The New and 
Diverting Game of "Alice 
in Wonderland," produced 
by Thomas De La Rue 
[WM 796] (1893-1904). 
This game is the best docu- 
mented of the oldest card 
games, and everyone has at 
least one edition of it (don't they?). The deck has 48 
cards with Tenniel illustrations colored by E. Gertrude 
Thomson grouped in sets of three cards with a com- 
mon number. These cards have been reproduced in 
many forms, including the notched construction card 
sets. Then I found a partial deck of The Game of Alice 
in Wonderland, a card game by Selchow Righter, New 
York. I have it entered in my database with a date of 
1884; unfortunately, I don't remember where that in- 
formation came from. There is a listing for this in the 
Parrish Collection online (http://libweb2.princeton. 
edu/rbsc2/parrish/09-Dodgson.pdf), item 889, stat- 
ing that there are 52 cards, which leads me to believe it 
is the item listed as [WM 795] . By the way, what a great 
Internet resource the Princeton catalog is. Still later I 
discovered the Parker Brothers' Wonderland: A Game, 
copyright 1895. Since I can't verify the 1884 date, any 
of these three games could be the first, but they are all 
exceptional items to have in your collection. 



n Jillmwl," in r»™?4 it. Em*m*-< 



33 



The Wonderland Postage-Stamp Case [WM 194], 
published by Emberlin and Son in 1890, may be the 
best known of the early collectibles. It was designed 
by Carroll and exhibits his flair for transformation. 
When yon pull the holder from its outer case, the baby 
changes into a pig, and the cat disappears, leaving just 
a grin. It is more readily available than other early col- 
lectibles because it went through three editions, the 
third of which was still available in stores as late as 
1933, according to an anecdote by Byron Sewell in Ad- 
ventures in Collecting Lexvis Carroll (page 21). 

Now we come to the famous Looking-Glass bis- 
cuit tin [WM 822] that so an- 
noyed Lewis Carroll. This 
tin was produced by Messrs. 
Hudson of Carlisle for Messrs. 
Jacob 8c Co. in 1892, with the 
permission of Carroll — until 
he discovered they were actu- 
ally including biscuits in it! 
The tin is 5'/ g x 5V 16 x 3 3 /^ inches 
and is covered with Tenniel il- 
lustrations in color. This may 
indeed be the first appearance 
of Alice in a blue dress. Madan 
notes that 50,000 of these were 
produced, but the extreme 
scarcity of this item says oth- 
erwise. Virtually nobody has 
one of these, but a replica was 
made in England for Odyssey 
House, Winston-Salem, North 
Carolina, in 1991, and you 
should be able to find one of 
those. Less well known are the 
tea tins manufactured and dec- 
orated by Mazawattee Works, 
London (ca. 1895). These tins 
are 8x6x6 inches and beauti- 
fully decorated with non-Tenniel illustrations. Maza- 
wattee produced both a Wonderland tin and a Look- 
ing-Glass tin. One more tin is listed in Lewis Carroll's 
Alice: An Annotated Checklist ofTheLovett Collection. Item 
1933 is a Lyon's Toffee Tin dated 1890-1910. While 
we are on the subject of items made of metal, let me 
mention a set of bronze or copper chargers made by 
Spital 8c Clark (1890-1920). They are 15 inches in di- 
ameter with a character in the center. I have seen pho- 
tos of two of these, the Mad Hatter and the Tweedles, 
but I assume there were others. 

They say you can't take it with you, but Alice jew- 
elry is a favorite collectible that you can take with you 
wherever you go. If I had to venture a guess, I would 
say that the first piece of Afo^jewelry would have been 
a charm bracelet. I might be right. There is a brace- 
let that I have seen dated ca. 1890. It has what might 
be classified as Alice character charms made of Essex 







crystals, also called reverse crystals. These are made of 
clear crystal that is cut in a dome shape, then engraved 
on the flat surface, and painted with a thin layer of 
mother of pearl. (Think of them as tiny paperweights.) 
The process has the effect of making the character ap- 
pear three-dimensional. 

Wouldn't you think that toys would have been the 
first merchandizing spin-off of a most popular chil- 
dren's book? The only one I can find for this era is a set 
of wooden figures made of flat carved pieces of wood 
with joints connected by small metal fasteners. They 
were made in England and are about 3 inches tall. A 

later set based on these was 
made in the 1980s, with 
England stamped on the 
bottom of a foot. Over the 
years there have been four 
other sets of similar con- 
struction that I have identi- 
fied, but that's a subject for 
a future column. 

Like Tweedledum and 
Tweedledee, I'm afraid 
it is time to have a battle. 
My armor for this battle is 
paper-thin, because it con- 
cerns the area in which I 
have the least expertise, 
I and that is dolls. There 
■ are Victorian "Alice" dolls 
with porcelain heads made 
in France and Germany. 
They were called Alice be- 
cause they were blonde 
': and had a black hair rib- 
^ : I bon. My theory is that they 

[ were not manufactured as 
\ Alice dolls, but were given 
the name after the fact. Of 
course, the other thing that bothers me is that they 
don't look like Alice. Now that is a particularly strange 
statement coming from me, as I have hundreds of il- 
lustrated Alice books, with hundreds of unique visions 
of Alice, and I manage to accept them all. Still, I don't 
accept these dolls. 

When I started writing this column, I didn't ex- 
pect to have this much to say, but one thing led to 
another, and here we are. This is the best view of the 
data as I know it, but that's all it is. Writing about col- 
lectibles is as much art as science, and I welcome ad- 
ditions and corrections to what is presented here. I 
couldn't have written this column without the help of 
Alice Berkey, Selwyn Goodacre, Jon Lindseth, Yoshi- 
yuki Momma, Byron Sewell, and Pat Shogren. 

Additional photographs, web links, and infor- 
mation related to this article can be found online at 
lewiscarroll.org/kl/79/addendum.html. 




*4 



34 



3n jWemortam 



► »> » cc « 



Kate Lyon 

(1953 -July 30, 2007) 
Carroll scholar Kate Lyon died suddenly at her home in New Zealand on July 30, 2007, at age 54. 
Kate was an accomplished musician, illustrator, designer, educator, community activist, researcher, 
and a writer on a wide range of subjects. 

Among the great passions of her life were mythology and the life and works of Lewis Carroll. 
Two of her articles appeared in the Knight Letter. "The White Stone" (AX 68:5-8) and "The Incor- 
ruptible Crown" (AX 71:15-19). In 2003, Kate presented a paper, "Instances of Mythological Sym- 
bolism within the Alice Texts," to the Third International Conference of Carroll Studies held at 
the University of Rennes, France (AX 72:35). She also wrote a number of articles on Carroll's use 
of mythology and his views on religion and the theological disputes of his day. At the time of her 
death Kate was working on two major works: a study of the role of mythology in Carroll's life, and a 
collaboration with John Tufail on the text and illustrations for The Hunting of the Snark. 

Kate was also the founder of the Lewis Carroll Society of New Zealand (www.lcsnz.org) and a 
co-founder of "Contrariwise: the Association for New Lewis Carroll Studies" (contrariwise.wild-real- 
ity.net), a.k.a. "Looking for Lewis Carroll" (www.lewiscarroll.ee). 

A deeply spiritual person, Kate was involved in promoting peace through organizations in New 
Zealand and her own website. She was also known for her illustrations for a series of four books 
on disability advocacy by John Tufail. Shortly before she died, she published a series of six books 
generically entitled The Hero's Journey, whose purpose was to help people of low literacy levels con- 
centrate on releasing their full potential using mythological structures (along the lines of Joseph 
Campbell's approach). 

Kate is survived by her husband, John Anthony, and son, John Charles. 




^M* 



^ 



Marjorie L. Clements 

(1906 - November 28, 2007) 
Marjorie Louise Clements, artist and illustrator, died in Chailey, East Sussex on November 28, 2007, 
at age 101. Although she was most famous for her Enid Blyton illustrations, in 1934 she was commis- 
sioned by the publisher Hutchinson to produce color plates and line drawings for a new edition of 
Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass, which had the rare distinction of being reprinted 
during the austerity period of the Second World War. 



35 




^•H^ 



Carrollian Notes 







SIC, SIC, SIC 

"Water, water everywhere," begins 
a Lewis Carroll poem from the 
famed book Alice in Wonderland, 
in which the character makes the 
all-important statement, "but not a 
drop to drink." 
Rene A. Capley, "BCUD requires 
back flow prevention, "Times- 
Gazette (Shelbyville, Tennessee), 
June 21, 2007, www.t-g.com/ 
story/ 12187 11. html. 



"Alice in Wonderland said it best: 
"If I had a world of my own, every- 
thing would be nonsense. Nothing 
would be what it is, because every- 
thing would be what it isn't." 
Eric Francis, "Browns Continue 
Standoff, Blame Press for Coverage, " 
Connecticut Valley Spectator, 
June 20, 2007, www.cvspectator. 
com/main, asp ?SectionID=2&' 
SubSectionID=8&'ArticleID=1290. 



"In the story of Alice in Wonder- 
land, Alice's mother said: 'up is 
down; down is up; black is white; 
white is black; sugar is salt and salt 
is sugar.'" 
"A California Democrat Speaks 
Truth to Power" (The remarks of 
Eric C. Bauman at the Franklin 
and Eleanor Roosevelt Democrat of 
the Year Awards Dinner, on July 29, 
2007), California Progress Report, 
August 5, 2007, ivivw. calif orniapro- 
gressreport. com/200 7/08/a_califor- 
nia de.html. 



THE TRUTH ABOUT "ALICE 

CW. Giles, Punch, August 15, 1928 

Higher criticism of Alice in Wonder- 
land has made startling progress 
since English scholars have been 
untrammeled by access to the 
manuscript, and the book, with 
its companion, Through the Look- 
ing Glass, can now be given to the 
world as an historical document of 
first importance. 

Little research has been needed 
to expose the vulgar error that the 
author was an Oxford mathemati- 
cian. Starting from the established 
principle that a pseudonym is 
always accompanied by textual 
clues whereby posterity may pen- 
etrate it, students have examined 
the various characters for a com- 
mon feature which must be the 
outstanding trait of their creator. 
This has been found to be com- 
plete mathematical ineptitude. 
From the many instances we need 
only quote the words of the Duch- 
ess, "I never could abide figures!" 
and of the White Queen, "I can do 
Addition if you give me time — but 
I can't do Subtraction under any 
circumstances." 

Rid of the Dodgson myth, we 
can ask ourselves anew, who was 
Lewis Carroll? What do the Alice 
books tell us of the identity and 
date of their author? 

Labyrinthine though their mo- 
tive may seem, there is a guiding 
thread which, diligently followed, 
leads to their secret. In The Look- 
ing Glass we find the thread in the 
contest between two parties distin- 
guished as the Red and the White, 
and we trace it back to the scene 



in Wonderland where the royal 
gardeners are busy painting white 
roses red. Gardener Two 's words 
reveal the secret: "This here ought 
to have been a red rose-tree, but 
we put in a white one by mistake, 
and if the Queen was to find out 
we should all have our heads cut 
off, you know." 

Where in history do we find red 
and white at variance, and men 
liable to decapitation for favouring 
a rose of the wrong colour? The 
answer leaps to the mind, carry- 
ing the conviction that the Alice 
books are a satire on the Wars of 
the Roses. 

On that hypothesis the charac- 
ters fall readily into their historical 
place. The Queen of Hearts (the 
Red Queen of The Looking Glass) , 
who demanded red roses, can be 
none other than the Lancastrian 
Queen Margaret, wife of Henry 
VI., the somnolent and ineffectual 
Red King. The critical student 
has a right to ask whether Lewis 
Carroll's presentation of Her 
Majesty accords with that of any 
other historical character. The an- 
swer is in the Shakespearean. Take 
the Wonderland Queen's favourite 
utterance, "Off with his head!" 
It cannot be mere coincidence 
that in Henry VI., having derisively 
crowned the captive Duke of York 
(the Knave in Wonderland) Queen 
Margaret commands, "Off with the 
crown, and, with the crown, his 
head:" and again, "Off with his head 
and set it on York gates." 

The Alice manuscript was clearly 
a Shakespearean source (though it 
as yet premature to assert that the 
author of Alice actually wrote the 



36 



plays) and we can therefore turn 
to Carroll to supplement some of 
the incidents which Shakespeare 
records. 

To give one instance: in the 
Duchess of Wonderland we cannot 
fail to recognize Eleanor, Duch- 
ess of Gloucester, Queen Mar- 
garet's mutual enemy. Shake- 
speare tells us how the Queen 
boxed her ears, whereupon the 
Duchess vowed: "She shall not 
strike Dame Eleanor unavenged." 

We find the sequel in Wonder- 
land. In the scene on the croquet- 
ground, Alice asks the White Rabbit, 
"Where's the Duchess?" 

"Hush! Hush!" said the Rabbit 
in a low hurried tone . . . "She's 
under a sentence of execution." 

"What for?" said Alice. 

"She boxed the Queen's ears," 
the Rabbit began . . . 

Genealogists may advance the 
baby as an objection to identifying 
the Duchess with Dame Eleanor, 
who had no son. But consider 
the attitude of the Duchess to the 
baby — one of such hostility that 
she administered first pepper 
and then chastisement for sneez- 
ing. Clearly the baby was no son 
of hers, but some infant against 
whom she had a grudge, and who 
should that be but her husband's 
successor to the title of Gloucester? 

The baby stands for Richard 
of Gloucester, who eventually 
mounted the throne as Richard 
III., and this is confirmed by its 
transformation into a pig, which 
is paralleled by Richard's adop- 
tion of a boar as badge (whence 
the York ham). The Cheshire Cat's 
interest in the baby's welfare is 
understandable when we remem- 
ber that in political rhymes of 
the period the Cabstands for Sir 
William Catesby, Richard's 
follower. Catesby became speaker 
of the House of Commons, to that 
the Cheshire Cat's appearances and 
disappearances refer to the assem- 
bly and prorogation of Parliament. 

As Richard III. is represented 
as an infant, the White King must 
be his elder brother, Edward IV. 



The King's Messengers, Hatter and 
Haigha — the Mad Hatter and the 
March Hare in Wonderland — are of 
course of the White Rose faction. 

Turning to history for a sup- 
plier of distinguished headgear, 
we at once identify the Hatter 
with Warwick the Kingmaker. The 
March Hare, however, is imper- 
sonal. He symbolises the Yorkist 
claim to the throne based on the 
descent from Mortimer, Earl of 
March, heir to Richard II. 

The alternate victories and re- 
verses of the White Rose and the 
Red are hinted by the battle be- 
tween the Red and White Knights: 
"One Rule seems to be that if one 
Knight hits another he knocks him 
off his horse, and if he misses he 
tumbles off himself." 

The fall of Humpty Dumpty, at- 
tended by the complete army of 
the Wliite King, refers to the shat- 
tering defeat of the Lancastrians at 
Towton. But the contest between 
Tweedledum and Txoeedledee is not 
one of the fights of the Roses. 
The two brothers, who, it will be 
remembered, abandoned their 
intended battle on the arrival of 
a "monstrous crow," are the old 
English kingdoms of Mercia and 
Wessex, which ceased their inter- 
necine strife to resist the Danish 
Raven. This is one of several ref- 
erences to earlier history which 
have crept into the Alice narrative, 
another being the ballad of Father 
William and the Young Man, who 
are, of course, the Conqueror 
and Rufus. 

As to the author's identity, the 
fact that he lampooned both par- 
ties in the dynastic struggle tells 
us that he belonged to neither, 
and was therefore probably a 
foreigner; while his pen-name, 
consisting of the names of the two 
Kings of France contemporary 
with Henry VI. and Edward IV., 
suggests that he was a Frenchman 
writing under royal patronage. 
The work therefore appears in the 
light of an official expression of 
French jubilation at the internal 



dissensions of England which put 
an end to the Hundred Years' War. 

We regard the theory that 
Lewis Carroll is an anagram of 
Eorl Waric. S(uus) L(iber) as 
frivolous and unworthy of the at- 
tention of truly serious scholarship. 

m 



A MATHEMATICAL 

CELEBRATION 

COMMEMORATING 

CHARLES L. DODGSON'S 

175™ BIRTHDAY 

Francine F Abeles 

From July 27 to 29, 2007, members 
of the Canadian Society for the 
History and Philosophy of Math- 
ematics (two-thirds of whom are 
American) and the British Society 
for the History of Mathematics met 
at Concordia University in Mon- 
treal. The meeting featured several 
special sessions, one of which hon- 
ored Charles L. Dodgson's 175 th 
birthday. For this occasion, I orga- 
nized a group of five talks repre- 
senting England, Australia, France, 
Canada, and the U.S. 

Being a Mathematics Undergraduate 
at Oxford & Cambridge 
in the Nineteenth Century 
Professor Tony Crilly (Middlesex 
University, England) , author of 
the acclaimed biography of the 
eminent nineteenth-century Brit- 
ish mathematician Arthur Cayley 
(Johns Hopkins University' Press, 
2007), opened the session with 
a stirring account of what it was 
like to study mathematics at Cam- 
bridge and Oxford Universities in 
Dodgson's lifetime. 

The "Inverse Probability" Controversy 

and Lewis Carroll 
Professor Eugene Seneta (Univer- 
sity of Sydney, Australia) — a distin- 
guished statistician and member 
of the Australian Royal Society, 
well-known for his analysis of Car- 
roll's "pillow problems" and writ- 
ings on probability' and algebra — 
was unable to come for the 
meeting. His paper was read by 
Professor Adrian Rice (Randolph 



37 



Macon College, U.S.), co-author 
with Seneta of a paper on Augus- 
tus DeMorgan and statistics in the 
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 
(2005). Seneta focused on the 
controversy over the nature of 
probability in the period 1876- 
1893 between the logicians/ 
frequentists (John Venn, George 
Chrystal) and those who followed 
the "Bayesian" footsteps of DeMor- 
gan, Isaac Todhunter, and William 
Whitworth. 

The Dodo and the DO: Lewis Carroll 
and the Dictum de Omni 
Professor George Englebretsen 
(Bishop's University, Canada), 
author of many philosophical 
articles in Jabberwocky on Carroll's 
logic writings, and more recently 
of a book on a new correspon- 
dence theory of truth (Ashgate, 
2006), spoke about the technical 
methods Carroll devised in his 
Symbolic Logic, Part I to make the 
learning and application of logic 
easier and more mechanical. 

"My Logical Friends ": Lewis Carroll 
and His Contemporary Logicians 
on the Barbershop Problem 
Amirouche Moktefi, PhD candi- 
date in history and philosophy of 
science (Louis Pasteur University, 
France), author of several papers 
about Carroll's logic and geo- 
metric writings, and of a chapter 
("Lewis Carroll's Logic") in the 
forthcoming Handbook of the His- 
tory of Logic, Volume 4: British Logic 
in the Nineteenth Century (Elsevier, 
2008) — a longer and far more 
technical version of the talk that 
Moktefi gave at our Spring 2007 
meeting, and which was printed in 
KL 78 — spoke about the genesis of 
the barbershop problem, of which 
Carroll wrote many versions. 

The Tangled Tale ofDodgson 's 
Condensation of Determinants 
Professor Francine Abeles (Kean 
University, U.S.), well-known for 
her publications about Dodgson's 
mathematics — most recently two 
articles in the journal History and 
Philosophy of Logic, in 2005 and 



2007 — described the development 
and extension of Dodgson's con- 
densation method in the period 
1986-2007, which has become a 
powerful tool in the automation of 
determinant evaluations. 

At the close of the meeting, I 
announced the planned summer 
2008 publication by Penguin of 
what promises to be a wonderful 
new book, Robin Wilson's Lewis 
Carroll in Numberland, His Fantasti- 
cal Mathematical Logical Life. Wilson 
holds professorships at the Open 
University (Milton Keynes, U.K.) 
and at Keble College, Oxford. I 
know that the readers of the Knight 
Letter, including those who usually 
shy away from the math side, will 
find this book illuminating. 



& 

THE HUNTING OF THE SNARK: 
A STAMMERING PERSPECTIVE 

Robert Yates 

Reprinted with permission from the 
Autumn 2001 edition o/Speaking 
Out, the British Stammering Associa- 
tion 's quarterly magazine (www. 
stammering, org), tuith an addendum 
by Edward Wakeling, editor of 
Lewis Carroll's Diaries 

To the horror of all who were 
present that day, 

He uprose in full evening dress, 

And with senseless grimaces 
endeavoured to say 

What his tongue could no 
longer express. 

This is perhaps the most obvious 
description of stammering in a 
poem where the account of the 
search for the legendary Snark 
seems to symbolize the various 
stages in a stammerer's quest for 
fluency or freedom of expression. 

The poem portrays, in an ap- 
propriately convoluted fashion, 
a ship crew's hunt for an elusive 
creature known as a Snark. Even- 
tually they find a Snark, but it 
turns out to be a particularly nasty 
specimen known as a Boojum, and 



the crew member who discovers 
the creature is literally engulfed by 
silence. 

The poem is divided into 
eight "Fits," most of which do 
little to advance the narrative: a 
clear analogy for the stammerer's 
struggle for expression. In addi- 
tion, Carroll takes the traditional 
ballad device of repetition to such 
lengths that it becomes a major 
theme of the poem. The names of 
all the crew members begin with 
"B," with one telling exception: 
someone who apparently does not 
know his name. As a stammerer, 
Carroll would have been used to 
the involuntary repetition of initial 
sounds — and he definitely had dif- 
ficulty saying his own name. Lewis 
Carroll is a pseudonym; as a child 
he was teased for pronouncing his 
surname "Do-do-Dodgson." Hence 
Alice's Dodo [see addendum] and 
similarly in "The Hunting of the 
Snark," the Jubjub bird. 

We can see a phrasal repetition, 
as well as a stammerer's attempt to 
be heard, and the resulting anxi- 
ety, in the Baker's conversation 
with the Bellman: 

"It is this, it is this — " "We have 
heard that before!" 

The Bellman indignantly said. 

And the Baker replied "Let me 
say it once more, 

It is this, it is this that I dread!" 

In Fit the Sixth (The Barrister's 
Dream) the Snark takes the role of 
judge, jury, barrister, and even wit- 
nesses, as the rest of the court are 
prevented from speaking: 

'You must know — " said the 
Judge: but the Snark 
exclaimed "Fudge!" 

The Snark overcomes the court 
with its glib fluency; little matter 
that its arguments are absurd and 
it succeeds in having its own client 
convicted. Verbal fluency is all that 
matters, not justice. This is surely a 
damning indictment of the fluent 
world. 

But if the Snark is a symbol 
for ridiculous fluency, it is also 
symbolic of stammering, as can 



38 



be seen when the nameless crew 
member encounters the creature: 

"He is waving his hands, he is 
wagging his head, 

He has certainly found a 
Snark!" 

"As if stung by a spasm," he 
shouts out "the ominous words 
'It's a Boo,'" falls into a chasm, 
and is silent forevermore. (Some 
of the crew hear the unfortunate 
man finally get out the last syllable 
"-jum," but others only hear "a 
weary and wandering sigh.") 

I have only scratched the 
surface of Carroll's stammering 
references, and I would urge any 
interested BSA members to read 



"The Hunting of the Snark" them- 
selves. You may agree with me that 
the poem would never have been 
written had Carroll been fluent, 
but is the fruit of his sufferings as a 
stammerer. 

Addendum by Edward Wakeling 
There is an error in Robert Yates' 
article concerning the myth that 
the Dodo is a reference to Lewis 
Carroll's (Rev. Charles L. Dodg- 
son's) speech impairment. It is 
suggested in various biographies 
(probably where Mr. Yates found 
it) that Dodgson is associated with 
the Dodo in Alice's Adventures in 
Wonderland because of the way he 
introduced himself — Mr. Do-do- 
Dodgson. 



Now that Dodgson 's diaries 
have been published in an un- 
abridged form (tenth and final 
volume due out in 2007), and 
we have copies of letters to his 
speech therapist, Henry Rivers, we 
know more about the nature of 
his speech problems. He suffered 
from a speech hesitation — not 
a repetition of words or sounds. 
Strong consonants, particularly 
the letter "p," caused him prob- 
lems, especially when reading 
aloud. General speech was very 
much under control. Dodgson is 
associated with the Dodo, but for 
different reasons. 




UHlLt FtoSSlMfi-j UWIS CARROLL 6£T5 AaJ 

l l'iii I jii i i i i i il i ni^ ri 



Jack Zieglerin the New Yorker, double issue. December 24-31, 2007 



39 



Alice's Misadventures Underground: 
The Complete Annotated Oxford Text 
A novel by Bradley E. Craddock 

iUniverse, 2006, 194 pp. 
ISBN-10: 0595403867 

ISBN-13: 978-0595403868 

Reviewed by Ray Kiddy 

This book will not be for everyone. 
My better half, for example, was 
not so amused by it. Nor is it a 
quick or easy read, but if you can 
tolerate an entire chapter written 
in the style of On the Road by Jack 
Kerouac, or a philosophical joke 
that uses "kan't" instead of "can't," 
you will be rewarded. Imagine 
someone trying to write Godel, 
Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden 
Braid, and coming up with an Alice 
story instead, and you may have 
the sense of it. 

The premise of this novel is 
that it was supposedly written 
by another Oxfordian, Lewis C. 
Swanson, in a competition with 
Dodgson. According to the ficti- 
tious Swanson, Dodgson saw him 
acting out the idea for the Alice 
story and stole it. Swanson is 
rather put out about this, and he 
nastily pokes fun at many things. 
Many of the absurdities in Alice 
appear, of course, but in absurdly 
transformed ways. A story of a 
carpenter and a walrus pokes 
fun at economics, and it is asked, 
when the Cheshire Cat disappears, 
whether he is in a box or not, a la 
Schrodinger. The jokes are mod- 
ern, but nothing in them suggests 
they could not have been told in 
Carroll's time, provided the teller 
was insane. 

The annotations are amusingly 
bizarre. On one page, there is a 
footnote for almost every other 
word. At another point, Swan- 
son/Craddock interjects: "The 
Pink Queen's story, however, is not 
original at all, but a retelling of a 
popular Russian folk tale, 'Paprika 
Hendl, Daughter of the Mists.'" 
One is left merely to raise an eye- 
brow at this and continue. These 



and 




things appear to be unconnected 
to any other part of the story that 
ensues. 

One cannot summarize this 
novel. Describing any one part of 
the book would leave too many 
other things out. I am sure that 
when I reread this novel, I will 
see jokes I missed the first time 
through. I may need to reread my 
Plato or Thorstein Veblen first, but 
I know I will reread this book. It is 
surely an accomplishment, even if 
it is not clear what it accomplishes. 

Perhaps the quote by "Pope 
Friedrich Johnson" that starts the 
book best describes its humor: 
"Two moral errors mankind re- 
peatedly makes: the first is not to 
see absurdity in all things. Taking 
himself seriously is the other." 



m 

Jabberwocky 

Re-imagined and illustrated 

by Christopher Myers 

Published by Jump at the Sun/ 

Hyperion/Disney Book Group, 

2007 

ISBN 978-1423103721 

Reviewed by Mark Burstein 

Thirty-one of its thirty-two pages 
are an absolute and utter de- 
light — a brash "re-imagining" of 
the poem as a pickup basketball 
game, a story told in bold, vibrant 
colors and an almost palpable 
hip-hop energy. Finding in the 
poem meanings other than the 
conventional "somebody killed 
something," as Alice put it, is a 
spirited endeavor, and such works 
as Stephane Jorish's haunting 
dystopian vision (KL 74:44) and 
this present one serve to widen 
the semantic range of the poem 



and are heartily welcomed to 
the canon. Mr. Myers is a most 
talented artist who has won many 
awards, including a Caldecott 
Honor for his illustrations for Har- 
lem, a collaboration with his father, 
Walter Dean Myers. 

Sadly, some of his fine work is 
undone by the text section at the 
end, "A Short Note on the Origins 
of This Book." Here he attempts 
to satirize academic pretensions by 
claiming to have "pored over the 
nine extant volumes" of Carroll's 
diaries and found a word, ollamalit- 
zli (a Mesoamerican precursor 
of basketball), scribbled in the 
margins; yet it sounds convincingly 
as if he has fallen under the misap- 
prehension that Carroll "meant" 
the poem to be about this sport. 
J. Patrick Lewis, in his review in 
the New York Times on November 
11, took him at his word, believing 
Myers to be serious in his claims, 
as most readers will. 

I wrote a letter, which was pub- 
lished in the Book Review section 
of the Nezv York Times on Decem- 
ber 2, giving Myers the benefit 
of the doubt, saying he may have 
meant it tongue-in-cheek, and 
ending: "To interpret a classic and 
inscrutable poem like Jabber- 
wocky' in a new way, as the artist 
has done so entertainingly with 
his images, is laudable; to mislead 
the uninitiated by pretending, 
however playfully, to hold the keys 
to its ultimate meaning is at best 
unwise, and runs the risk of de- 
tracting from the overall appeal of 
the reinterpretation." 

The Times printed a response 
from Mr. Myers, saying that he, in 
fact, "wrote the author's note in 
a particularly nonsensical mood," 
and then going on, once again in 
apparent sincerity, to narrate how 
he was being stalked by "nefari- 
ous Victorian . . . emissaries of the 
Lewis Carroll Society." 

If even such perceptive persons 
as the Times reviewer and I did not 
detect that Myers was writing in 



40 



jest, one fears for his lay audience. 
I respectfully suggest Myers stick to 
what he does so superbly, namely 
illustrating, and leave his leaden 
attempts at humor to those more 
skilled at it. 

Would I recommend this book? 
Absolutely; the ideas and images 
are enchanting, and knowing now 
that he was kidding around makes 
the last page palatable, if not ex- 
actly welcome. 

In addition to being named one of 
the New York Times Best Illus- 
trated Books of 2007 and a Caldecott 
contender, Jabberwocky has been 
reviewed positively by several journals 
geared toivard school and public li- 
brarians — Kirkus Reviews (August 
15, 2007); School Library Journal 
(August 2007); Publishers Weekly 
(September 17 \ 2007); Library Media 
Connection (November /December 
2007); Booklinks (November 2007); 
Reading Today (December 2007/ 
fanuary 2008). Only the Reading 
Today review mentions Myers ' after- 
word, calling it "fascinating. " // looks 
as if, for years to come, kids who read 
the aftenoord are going to be exposed to 
a bit of silly, though probably harmless, 
misinformation. — Eds. 



m 

Seeing Redd 

by Frank Beddor 

Dial, 2007; $17.99 

ISBN: 978-0803731554 

Revieioed by Ray Kiddy 

The premise of Seeing Redd, the 
second book in Frank Beddor's 
"The Looking Glass Wars" series, 
is simple enough, that the Alice 
books of Lewis Carroll were stories 
seen "through a glass, darkly" of 
a real war in a real but alternate 
universe, Wonderland. This leads 
to a story of politics with fantasy 
elements. The story starts with the 
tenuous peace established by Alyss 
Heart after the defeat of the Red 
Queen, or "Queen Redd," who 
had killed the previous queen, 
Alyss's mother, to take control of 
Wonderland. 



Being the true heir to the 
throne, the infant Alyss was an 
enemy of Redd and, for .her pro- 
tection, was hidden away in a quiet 
corner of our world, where she 
was known as Alice Liddell. She 
was brought here through a "Pool 
of Tears," one of the gateways be- 
tween our world and Wonderland. 
In the previous book of this series, 
Alyss returned to Wonderland and 
won back her throne. In this book, 
she must keep it. 

The story works well as "hard," 
or technology-oriented, science 
fiction. One is reminded of Rob- 
ert Heinlein's Starship Troopers 
(there are rather a lot of weapons 
in Wonderland!) and Harlan 
Ellison's "Repent Harlequin!, Said 
the Tick-Tock Man." Alyss has very 
effective bodyguards, the main 
one being Hatter Maddigan. The 
Cheshire Cat is a rather nasty as- 
sassin who works for Redd and 
can shape-change from a cuddly, 
fluffy kitten into a much bigger 
and toothier beast. There are 
even hookah-smoking Caterpil- 
lars. They are powerful mystics, a 
bit like a cross between the Fates 
of Greek mythology and the Dalai 
Lama. And of course, soldiers are 
cards. Instead of being grouped 
into squads and battalions, they 
are "hands" and "decks." 

There are other characters in 
this book who do not come from 
Alice, and Dodgson himself makes 




a small, rather stuttering appear- 
ance. Redd kidnaps him and wants 
him to write a "correct" story, as 
the one he has written is obviously 
wrong and represents Alyss's in- 
terests. 

This is not a story "from Alice," 
but rather something tangential to 
it. It works well on its own terms. 
It makes fun of the Alice stories 
without being heavy-handed about 
it and without even working very 
hard at it. There is no axe being 
ground here, no point being 
made. Beddor just seems to be 
having fun. Taken in that spirit, it 
is an enjoyable read. 



The Angel and 
the Jabberwocky Murders 

Mignon F Ballard. New York: St. 

Martin's Press, 2006 

ISBN-1 3:978-0-31 2-35419-0 

10:0-312-35419-3 

Revieioed by August A. Imholtzjr. 

Mystery novels, like all fiction, 
require of the reader a certain 
suspension of disbelief, but 
Mignon Franklin Ballard perhaps 
carries this too far and asks too 
much of even the most insatiable 
consumers of cozies, thrillers, 
police procedurals, and the other 
subgenres into which mystery 
stories may be broken down or 
carved up. And this is why: to 
Ballard's Holmes, a teacher named 
Lucy Nan Pilgrim at a small wom- 
en's college in South Carolina, 
the role of Watson is played by 
Augusta Goodnight, who is also 
Lucy's blond-haired, strawberry- 
loving, and faintly honeysuckle- 
smelling guardian angel. 

There are many problems with 
this detective duo, but the most 
serious ones are that Augusta does 
not seem to be very bright, even 
for the lowest order of the angelic 
host, and that she does very little 
in the guardian line — she is more 
interested in eating, and several of 
her recipes, though not angel-food 
cake, are presented in the book. 



41 



The same things also could be said 
of Lucy. 

Without giving away the plot, 
suffice it to say that several under- 
graduate students are murdered 
after each had received a stanza of 
"Jabberwocky" in the mail. Here 
are a few samples. 

After Lucy reads aloud the "And 
hast thou slain the Jabberwock?" 
quatrain to the police officers, 
who have a little trouble with some 
of the words, the text continues: 

Kemper glared at me. "You 
gonna tell me you know what 
that means?" 

I threw up my hands. 
"Hey, T didn't write it. It's just 
nonsense verse. It's meant to 
poke fun." 

"Well, whoever's sending 
them is dead serious," Captain 
Hardy said. 

And closer to the beginning of the 
book we find: 

"Augusta's hair always looks 
good with very little help from 
her, no matter what she does, 
and she never, never perspires. 
Angels don't sweat, she tells 
me. When she first came to my 
door a year ago, claiming to be 
my guardian angel, I had my 
doubts, of course." 

So do we. 

Only recommended for the 
most hellishly completist collector. 



Alice in Wonderland: 
A Surreal and Disturbing Play 

Reviewed by Alise G. Wagner 

(with a little linguistic help 

from Byron W. Sewell) 

The Dutch "Theatre Gajes" (www. 
gajestheater.nl) has just finished 
a summer tour through Germany 
with their bizarre interpretation 
of Alice in Wonderland. This open- 
air play, winner of the Detmold 
International Street Festival for 
2006, is performed at night with 
the actors, perched on high stilts, 
careening and wading through the 
audience (as many as 3,000), who 



are standing in a dark circle on 
the lawn. 

The play begins romantically 
enough, as in an enchanting 
dream, when an old man in a boat 
named Alice seems to float directly 
over the audience's uplifted and 
expectant faces. The boat is fol- 
lowed by a mature Alice with curly, 
ginger hair, asleep in her bed, also 
floating high above to the accom- 
paniment of strange atmospheric 
music played by a bass and an 
accordion. The storyteller, the old 
man in the boat, promises to make 
Alice dream for the first time in 
her life. A white rabbit suddenly 
scampers through the crowd and 
one naturally expects Alice to soon 
be in hot pursuit. But the familiar 
idyll is roughly broken by the noisy 
entrance of a very wicked Queen, 
who in her enormous white dress 
obviously is not the Queen of 
Hearts, but looks exactly like a 
chess queen. She is intent on find- 
ing a bride for her simple-minded, 
ugly son. To the delight (or 
horror, as it may be) of the audi- 
ence, three audience members 
appear to lose their heads, until 
the Queen notices Alice, who, of 
course, the Queen decides would 
make the perfect princess for her 
less-than-charming prince. 

Things really get chaotic when 
Alice, wanting none of this, jumps 
out of bed and disappears into 
the throng. The Queen and her 
company frantically search for 
her, the squads of soldiers march- 
ing this way and that through 
the crowd. Standing in the dark 
or blinded by a spotlight, mem- 
bers of the audience desperately 
try to get out of their way, with 
waves of people stumbling in all 
directions, all to the delight of 
the younger set, who naturally 
also find it cool when the Queen 
begins a ghastly game of basket- 
ball with the disembodied heads 
removed a few minutes earlier! 
Finally, Alice manages to convince 
the storyteller to end her dream. 



The costumes were both fanci- 
ful and fascinating, as were various 
stunning objects (that apparently 
had nothing to do with the story) 
that floated through the night- 
time sky, appearing and disap- 
pearing into the darkness above 
the circular stage created by the 
heads of the audience. However, 
at least to this somewhat stunned 
and trampled reviewer, this Alice 
in Wonderland would have been 
more aptly named Alice's Dutch 
Nightmare. 



Traverse City Children's Theater's 
"Alice in Wonderland" 

June 15 and 16, 2007 

Written by William Glemmon, 

directed by Laura Mittelstaedt, 

produced by Luis Araquistain. 

vvww.tcctheater.org 

Reviewed by R. Steven Terry Jr. 

Any of you who missed this pro- 
duction missed a rare treat. The 
play started with the White Rabbit 
running out on stage, telling the 
audience that the play could not 
start because they have NO Alice! 
This caused a commotion on 
stage, and the ensemble debated 
whether to let the play go on. 
Fortunately, one of the cast alerted 
everybody that there was a young 
girl backstage. When the curtain 
pulled back, there was Alice, sit- 
ting in the middle of the stage, 
daydreaming. The rest of the cast 
surrounded her, the White Rabbit 
pulled out a watch, and the chase 
began! 

Using multicolored jumpsuits 
as costumes was a great idea, as 
was having everybody form an 
arch for the rabbit hole. The en- 
semble held up cloth doors for the 
"hall of doors." I had to chuckle 
when I saw the Mouse wearing an 
inner tube as six cast members 
waved sheets of blue cloth to simu- 
late the "pool of tears." 

Pulled along by the White Rab- 
bit, a confused Alice was told, "You 
have to run to stay in the same 
place; if you want to get some- 



42 



where else, you have to run twice 
as fast." The Caterpillar not only 
changed into a butterfly at the 
end, but did a wonderful job with 
Carroll's dialogue. The Frog Foot- 
man ushered Alice inside where 
they were met by the Duchess 
(male, as in English pantomimes), 
who was singing "Speak Roughly" 
to the pig-baby. The Cook and the 
Cheshire Cat really stole the show. 
As Alice tried to hold a conversa- 
tion with the Duchess, the Cook 
banged away on pots and pans, 
and the Cheshire Cat grinned at 
Alice from a table. 

Another standout scene was 
the Mad Tea Party. I still do not 
know how they got that large 
table on stage, and every time the 
Dormouse tried to peek out of a 
giant teapot, the Hatter or March 
Hare pushed her back down. The 
Hatter's recitation of "Twinkle, 
Twinkle Little Bat" reminded 
me of Martin Short's rendition. 
The party was interrupted by the 
Queen's croquet game with all 
its commotion. Delight turned to 
terror as the Queen and the Court 
barged out, demanding "Off with 
everybody's head!" The Lobster 
Quadrille was cute, and I did have 
to laugh as the Mock Turtle sang 
an off-key version of "Beautiful 
Soup." And of course, Alice was 
the final witness in the trial. She 
found the tarts, freed the Knave, 
and instead of being chased (as 
in Disney) , she turned to the au- 
dience and told them to have a 
daydream like hers. The cast sur- 
rounded her, and she fell asleep in 
the middle of the stage. 



Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 

Adapted and directed by Scott 
Davis. Choreographed 

by Yoko Feinman 

University of Maryland, 

October 20-22, 2007 

Reviewed by Clare Imholtz 

This Alice, a student production 
of the University of Maryland's 
Department of Theatre, was billed 
as "an exploration of the body and 



movement with the story of Alice's 
Adventures in Wonderland as, its 
backbone," but this viewer would 
turn that description around a bit. 
Perhaps inevitably, I saw it more as 
the story of Alice's Adventures told by 
combining expressive movement 
with dialogue from the book. A 
familiar story, that is, but told in a 
striking new way. I wasn't sure what 
to expect, but I found the perfor- 
mance to be very successful and 
quite moving (no pun intended). 

Alice and six other players, all 
women, who formed a chorus as 
well as taking shifting roles, per- 
formed on a virtually bare stage 
(there was a transparent backdrop 
of sorts, but it was used only once, 
to make Alice appear a mile high). 
There were no props, except a 
book and a long piece of wind- 
ing cloth used during the descent 
through the rabbit hole, and no 
costumery, except for rabbit ears 
and the donning and removal of 
a few hats. All seven performers 
remained on stage for the entire 
performance, constantly in motion. 

The first few moments focused 
on Alice's bewilderment upon ar- 
riving in Wonderland, and seemed 
to set up an antagonism between 
Alice and the other characters. 
This, however, subsided as the story 
began to unfold and Alice found 
herself capable of dealing with the 
challenges they presented. Alice's 
changes of size, her attempts to 
enter the garden, her experiences 
around the pool of tears — all were 
splendidly expressed through noth- 
ing more than facial expressions, 
the constant movement and quick 
rearrangings of the seven bodies on 
stage, and dialogue drawn directly 
from Carroll. Equally successful 
scenes included the encounter 
with the Cheshire Cat, the Mad Tea 
Party, the croquet game (which 
was very funny indeed), and the 
trial. The latter included a brilliant 
dramatic reading of the exquisite 
nonsense poem from Chapter 
12, "They told me you had been 
to her," by the White Rabbit, who 



danced and jumped fiercely about 
the stage, pointing to different 
characters as she emphasized each 
pronoun in the poem. It was an 
electrifying performance. 

While not all scenes from the 
book were depicted, those that 
were presented succeeded in form- 
ing a seamless whole, as so rarely 
happens when Alice is played upon 
the stage. Perhaps it was the em- 
phasis on movement — or should 
I call it dance, inspired dance — 
which enabled the scenes to flow 
one into the other. When the play 
ended, I sat on, with closed eyes, and 
half believed myself m Wonderland, 
amazed that these students could 
so faithfully express Lewis Carroll's 
genius through movement. 



m 

Curiouser and Curiouser 

Written, directed, and designed by 

Gretchen Van Lente 

Presented by Drama of Works 

(www.dramaofvvorks.com) at 

HERE Arts Center, 145 Sixth 

Avenue, New York, NY, as part of 

the Alice in Wonderland Puppet 

Festival, 9/19-10/7/2007 

Reviewed by Andrew Sellon 

This production, as well as the fes- 
tival around it, was clearly a labor 
of love for Drama of Works' artis- 
tic director, Gretchen Van Lente. 
Drawn from the Alice books as well 
as from the writings of both Mr. 
Dodgson and Alice Liddell Har- 
greaves, this well researched, hour- 
long piece explored their unique 
relationship as creator and muse, 
and the possible reasons for the 
relationship's eventual collapse. 
Ms. Van Lente combined live ac- 
tors with various forms of puppets, 
from traditional figures to found 
objects, often to intriguing and 
revealing effect. In addition, she 
chose to have one actor portray 
Dodgson and another play Carroll, 
making the dual identity literal. 
Ben Sulzbach was particularly 
engaging as the contemplative, 
sincere Dodgson, but Adam Sul- 
livan did not have as much to work 



43 



with as Carroll, and as a result the 
relationship between the two re- 
mained mostly unexplored. This is 
something Van Lente might want 
to consider developing in greater 
depth. Transitions between scenes 
felt somewhat vague, and over all, 
the piece felt a bit as if it needed a 
stronger sense of momentum and 
purpose. And despite the impres- 
sive scholarship evident in the 
script, there were a couple of mis- 
pronunciations of names. 

But taken on its own terms, as 
an experimental dream play, the 
production offered many clever, 
creative, and thought-provoking 
moments. In the interest of space, 
a few examples will have to suffice: 
Lorina and Edith were rendered 
amusingly as actor-animated Vic- 
torian paper dolls, with Dodgson's 
photographs of their heads su- 
perimposed on their flat, jointed 
bodies. Alice was a larger, waiflike 
three-dimensional child doll, 
animated by stern but committed 
(and flexible) puppeteer Amy 
Carrigan. Alice's changes in size 
were entertainingly rendered with 
artfully changed juxtapositions of 
people and props, and in the Mad 
Tea Party, the Hatter was a side- 
board that flipped its lid to talk. 
Literally. Virtually every object on 
stage became a character at one 
point or another, which seemed 
very Carrollian indeed. 

And wisely, while Ms. Van Lente 
included actors portraying Mrs. 
Liddell and Miss Prickett, there 
were no villains — only a cast of 
characters all somehow prevented 
by society's constraints from pos- 
sessing what they most wanted. I 
hope that Ms. Van Lente will con- 
tinue to work on this piece, and 
perhaps clarify and expand it. I'm 
only sorry that my schedule didn't 
permit me to attend some of the 
other events in this Alice-themed 
festival. 

Ms. Van Lente had invited me 
to the opening-night performance 



so that I could take part in a Q&A 
session with the audience after- 
ward. Unsurprisingly, the first 
question I was asked was about 
the LCSNA's position on the ques- 
tion of Dodgson and pedophilia. 
I referenced Ms. Van Lente's play 
as a good example of responsible 
playwriting, putting the man in 
the context of his time, and not 
judging him by our own contem- 
porary double standards. Ms. Van 
Lente and I were delighted that 
the questions kept coming for a 
full hour from the audience of 
about twenty. There were no par- 
ticularly surprising questions or 
comments, but many thoughtful 
and intelligent ones. 

Taking their cue from my 
first answer, the audience asked 
to know more about the real 
Dodgson, his life at Oxford, his 
position in society, and both his 
child and adult friendships, as 
well as about the real Alice. They 
were clearly delighted to learn 
that Dodgson was anything but the 




shrinking violet so often presented 
by those who have not done their 
homework. Afterward, Ms. Van 
Lente, a gracious host, fired up an 
electric kettle and invited the audi- 
ence to join the cast for tea and 
scones, courtesy of New York tea- 
shop Alice's Tea Cup. All in all, an 
interesting and rewarding evening, 
and all should be congratulated. 



Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 

& Nonsense Verse and Prose 

by Lewis Carroll 

Audiobook by Oxford Storypods 
(www.oxfordstorypods.com) 

Reviewed by Andrew Sellon 

These days, with the number 
of companies producing audio- 
books, how is a newcomer to set 
itself apart? Oxford Storypods, 
the brainchild of Liz and Fran- 
cis Ainley, distinguishes itself by 
being based in Oxford, and by 
employing all Oxfordshire talent. 
Fittingly, given their home base, 
they selected Alice's Adventures in 
Wonderland as their first recording. 
Even better, they have included 
a bonus of selected poetry and 
prose by our favorite author — in- 
cluding some of the better-known 
letters — so it's a good amount of 
material for the money ($21 for 
LCSNA members for the CD, or 
$12 for download; mp3 format 
either way) . 

Quantity is all well and good, I 
hear you say, but what about qual- 
ity? Happily, the producers of this 
maiden effort have put just the 
right maiden front and center: 
Katherine Eve acts as both the 
narrator and as our heroine, and 
does a delightful job with both. 
Some might quibble that it would 
seem odd to hear the narrator's 
sometimes deathly droll asides 
coming from the same voice as 
that of Alice, but Ms. Eve handles 
the distinction subtly and adroitly. 
And most importantly, she brings 
to her Alice a delightful combi- 
nation of youthful abandon and 
forthright intelligence that is ide- 



44 



ally suited to the role. Never for a 
moment does she sound like an 
adult "reading down": she is ut- 
terly committed to the straightfor- 
ward simplicity of Alice, and the 
result is a fresh and winning per- 
formance that rewards continued 
listening. 

The rest of the cast acquit 
themselves respectably supporting 
her; Bill Moulford in particular 
brings engaging specificity to a 
number of roles, and also com- 
posed the charming piano music 
that starts and ends the recording. 
A couple of performers occasion- 
ally lapse into making funny voices 
rather than rendering character- 
izations, but this is fleeting and 



does not detract seriously from the 
overall success of the recording. 

The text is unabridged, al- 
though I will note that the pro- 
ducers do allow themselves one 
modern touch, when the narrator 
advises those seeking a picture 
of a gryphon to look it up on the 
Internet. There are no sound ef- 
fects, and I didn't feel the need for 
them; those involved wisely let the 
words carry the day. Carrollians 
will enjoy the French and music 
(there is no washing involved), 
and especially the extras. 

The Ainleys have assured me 
that all of the prose and poetry 
included is in the public domain 



now, and I enjoyed hearing the 
generous selection read aloud — 
particularly the selection of witty 
and playful letters (yes, the much- 
loved kittens letter is included). 
I have encouraged them to make 
the Dodgson estate aware of this 
recording and their upcoming 
production of Through the Look- 
ing-Glass. With Ms. Eve commit- 
ted to playing Alice once again, I 
will look forward to that listening 
treat. All in all, this is a charming 
first recording, and we can only 
hope that in time they will expand 
their catalogue to include the 
Snark and some more of the lesser- 
known Carroll/Dodgson prose 
and poetry gems. 







feg»S88 






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Map by Chase, a student at Carol McCaig's sixth-grade class assignment (seepage 1) 



ART 

Signed limited edition prints are 
now available from an original 
painting by renowned U.K. artist 
William Geldart, commissioned by 
Daresbury Church to support 
the development of the Lewis 
Carroll Visitor Centre and 
to celebrate Daresbury's most 
famous son. The print depicts 
All Saints Church, Daresbury, 
together with a variety of char- 
acters from AA/Wand TTLG. 
With stunning detail and accu- 
racy, Geldart has portrayed these 
characters in the style of Tenniel. 
The prints are on 270-gram acid- 
free fine-art paper with extremely 
lightfast inks and superb accuracy 
of color. Each is signed and num- 
bered by the artist. Print size is 81 
x 37 cm (paper size 94 x 50 cm), 
£70 per print (postage included). 
Prints can be viewed and pur- 
chased online at www.daresbury 
cofe.org.uk/alice_painting/index. 
htm. 

From October 27, 2007, to March 
18, 2008, San Francisco's Cartoon 
Art Museum (www.cartoonart. 
org) presented "The Art and Flair 
of Mary Blair," a retrospective 
exhibition of the work of famed 
animation designer Mary Blair 
(1911-1978). "This once-in-a-life- 
time exhibition includes an array 
of Blair's groundbreaking concept 
art for classic Disney feature films 
including Alice in Wonderland, 
Cinderella, and Peter Pan; Disney 
shorts such as The Little House, 
Johnny Appleseed, and Susie, The 
Little Blue Coupe, and Disney theme 
parks and attractions, including 
"It's A Small World." "The Art 
and Flair of Mary Blair" showcases 
the full scope of Blair's career as 
an artist and illustrator, includ- 
ing early watercolor paintings, 
commercial illustrations for such 
clients as Hanes, Pall Mall, and 
Baker's Chocolate, a selection of 
Blair's fine art, unpublished family 
photographs, and children's book 
illustrations, including pages from 
the classic Little Golden Book / 
Can Fly." 




O &f*f*espontlen f,s 




Eleanore Ramsey's magnificent 
binding of the Cheshire Cat Press 
TTLG was on display at the Hand 
Bookbinders of California exhibi- 
tion at the San Francisco Public 
Library, November and December, 
2007. The bookbinding exhibit was 
on the sixth floor, and there was a 
small exhibit in a large display case 
at the entrance of the second floor 
Children's Library, which contained 
a Lewis Carroll homage ("Flamin- 
goes and Mustard Both Bite"). It's 
one of Barbara ("Alex") Szerlip's 
"Book Sculptures." 

Rebecca Hackemann's double 
anamorphic drawing "Alice's 
Looking Glass House" (2007, ink 
and gouache on paper, 15 x 15 
inches; handmade mirror viewer: 
aluminum, silver, wood, 5x3x3 
inches) was shown at the Marcia 
Wood Gallery from September 6 
to November 24, 2007, and can be 
seen online at www.marciawood- 
gallery.com/click_shift_enter/ 
artist/hackemann/alice.html. 
Anamorphic ink drawings have 
two sides. The viewer walks around 
the drawing and its cylindrical 
mirror to see another related 
drawing opposite the first, on the 
same piece of paper. In the case 
of "Alice's Looking Glass House", 
one side shows her going into the 
mirror, and the other side shows 
her coming out — the mirror then 
becomes a metaphor for "The 
Looking Glass House" itself. 



"Sculptor holds his breath as tiny 
Alice is installed," The Guardian, 
1 1 August, 2007. "An artist who 
specializes in microsculpture 
so small that it can fit in the 
eye of a needle has just 
finished a new tableau 
of Alice in Wonderland in 
nylon fiber after inhaling 
its heroine in his original 
piece by mistake. Williard 
Wigan, 50, from Birming- 
ham, who recently sold his com- 
plete works for an estimated £1 lm 
to tennis entrepreneur David 
Lloyd, breathed in too sharply 
while completing the figurine, 
which is smaller than a speck of 
dust. Mr. Willard said the hitch 
had cost him £60,000 in time and 
equipment. The new Alice was 
installed in the Mad Hatter's tea 
party tableau yesterday." 

Whimsical black-and-white prints 
inspired by Alice and other fairy 
stories are available for pur- 
chase at IsabellasArt's Etsy store: 
www.etsy.com/shop.phpPuser_ 
id=5329626&section_id=5 194748. 
The 100 limited-edition prints 
come on environmentally friendly 
Fineart paper and are signed and 
numbered as well as dated. 

Florencia Pita's "Alice" exhibit at 
LAXART (July 19 to August 30, 
2007, www.laxart.org/contempo- 
rary/2007/07/ 1 1 /florencia-pita- 
alice) was a creative 7 x 20 foot 
installation. "Working with cast 
urethane, and covered in orange 
vinyl, the exhibit explored bring- 
ing life to the found images in the 
early editions of Carroll's famous 
fantasy world. The Victorian-esque 
ornamental pattern (complete 
with spades — reminiscent of the 
Disney version) was created by ex- 
periments with digital technology, 
and utilized a bright vivid color 
and floral curvature to capture the 
whimsy and curio of wonderland" 
("LAist Interview: Florencia Pita," 
LAist.com, September 11, 2007). 

This summer, three Winston- 
Salem artists who share an enthu- 
siasm for Lewis Carroll's books 



46 



and the themes explored in them 
combined forces to present "3 
Through the Looking Glass," an 
exhibition at the Theatre Art Gal- 
leries (www.tagart.org) in High 
Point, North Carolina. Millicent 
Greason, Leanne Pizio, and Tif- 
fany O'Brien work in different 
media and take substantially dif- 
ferent approaches to the show's 
theme: www.journalnow.com/serv- 
let/Satellite?pagename=WSJ%2F 
MGArticle%2FWSJ_RelishArticle&: 
c=MGArticle&cid=l 1 73352668984 
&path=!entertainment!general!&s 
=1037645508970. 

Effie Bouras's Alice- and architec- 
ture-inspired drawings can be seen 
at the Red Spade Studio (www. 
phoenixartspace.com/redspade) 
in Phoenix, Arizona. Ms. Bouras 
states that "the notion of Alice's 
confinement, although extreme, is 
an unwavering interplay between 
authoritarian hierarchy and its 
dismemberment." 

Berkeley, California, photographer 
Diana Elliott's images of Alice and 
other fairy tales can be viewed on 
her website: www.dianaephoto. 
com/alice/alicepage.htm. 

During the annual tournament 
"Cup of Rector," which was held 
in the National Law Academy of 
Ukraine in Kharkov, a photo chess 
exhibition, including TTLG- 
inspired images created by Marina 
Valuiska, also took place. "[The 
illustrations] are an expression 
of Marina Valuiska's own under- 
standing of this famous book. All 
characters (chess pieces) whom 
Alice meets during the travel are 
different forms of reflection of 
her own. The action of a fairy tale 
takes place in a dream, therefore 
perhaps this book is really algo- 
rithm for self-knowledge. Modern 
computer technologies gave an 
opportunity to embody her under- 
standing of this book, and all char- 
acters are created by computer 
modifications of her own face." 
("The Art of Marina Valuiska," 
June 29, 2007, www.chessbase. 
com/newsdetail.asp?newsid=3961 , 
includes photos.) 



m 

ARTICLES 

Page A20 of the August 23, 2007, 
New York Times has an editorial 
titled "Curiouser and Curiouser" 
and starts off saying, "New York 
State politics has become an arena 
best entered through the looking 
glass." 

See, if you can, page 12 of the July 
20 New York Times Book Review for 
the illustration and the quote on 
page 13: " . . . Toby turns 42 (The 
most dangerous age,' according to 
the Japanese — who knew?)." 

The Fall 2007 issue of Petaluma 
magazine includes an article on 
Petaluma, California, resident 
and former LCSNA vice president 
Mark Burstein's Alice collection. 
Copies can be purchased by call- 
ing the magazine at (707) 776- 
8453. 

"Wittgenstein's Reflection in Lewis 
Carroll's Looking-Glass," by Leila 
S. May {Philosophy and Literature, 
2007, v. 31, pp. 77-94), applies 
Wittgenstein's theory of language 
games to some famous passages 
from the Alice books. Several other 
articles on Carroll have appeared 
recently in academic journals of 
philosophy. "With and Without 
End" (which also examines Carroll 
and Wittgenstein), by Peter Cave, 
is in Philosophical Investigations 
(April 2007). Dr. Francine Abeles 
published "Lewis Carroll's Visual 
Logic" in February 2007 in History 
and Philosophy of Logic, and there 
is also "Carroll's Regress and the 
Epistemology of Logic," by Patrice 
Philie, in Philosophical Studies (May 
2007). In the field of mathematics, 
we have "'Shutting up like a tele- 
scope': Lewis Carroll's 'Curious' 
Condensation Method for Evaluat- 
ing Determinants," by Adrian Rice 
and Eve Torrance, in College Math- 
ematics Journal (April 2007). 

Carrollian terms are frequently re- 
imagined in the world of science, 
but not always correctly. The New 
Scientist (August 17, 2007) states: 
"Imagine a hedgehog tottering 



across a road to a grass verge. On 
reaching the boundary, it relaxes 
and goes to sleep. There you have 
it. In figurative, everyday language, 
that's a boojum." According to 
the magazine, in this example, the 
"boojum," a topological defect, is 
the result of the hedgehog's desire 
to softly and silentlv fade away. 
The magazine errs, however, as 
correspondent James Woolfield 
points out in a Carrollian riposte 
printed in the next issue: the 
boojum doesn't fade away in The 
Hunting of the Snark, but it can 
cause others to. 

NonsenseLit.org reprints Flor- 
ence Milner's article "The Poems 
in Alice in Wonderland' (originally 
published in The Bookman XVIII, 
September 1903, pp. 13-16) at 
www.nonsenselit.org/content/ 
view/ 76/ 66/. 

Vogue Living, Fall/Winter 2007, 
contains an article, "Through the 
looking glass," about the Milan 
Furniture Fair and related fashion, 
photographed by Bruce Weber 
as "a surrealist tableau" with 
Carrollian themes, some of which 
were difficult to ferret out. 

"Lewis Carroll's Little Girls" in The 
Chronicle of Higher Education (The 
Chronicle Review section, Vol. 
54, Issue 10, p. B16) discusses the 
friendships and photography of 
Lewis Carroll in the context of the 
Victorian era, contrasting it to our 
own. 

In The Guardians November 25 
article "That's the best thing we've 
read all year" ( The Observer Maga- 
zine), writers and cultural figures 
choose their favorite books of 
2007. Sex educator and feminist 
Shere Hite says, "Alice in Wonder- 
land ... is a great book, an allegory 
for women today, still not fitting 
in 'quite,' either too big or too 
small or growing too fast! It is 
amusing to read fiction as a sat- 
ire, not as a simple story, and has 
been mv favorite book all year." 
See http://observer.guardian. 
co.uk/review/story/0,,2216448,00. 
html?gusrc=rss&feed=10. 

47 



Jasper Fforde, author of the Thurs- 
day Next books, called AAIW the 
book that most influenced his own 
novels, in the June 4, 2007, News- 
week: "At the age of 7 or 8, 1 was 
swept away by Alice's madcap esca- 
pades and respectful irreverence 
of established nursery characters 
and situations." 

The December 7, 2007, Times 
(London) article "Ofsted wields its 
vorpal sword at Jabberwocky ap- 
proach to poetry," reports that the 
U.K. Office for Standards in Edu- 
cation warns that poetry teaching 
in England can be repetitive and 
dull, with the same few poems cho- 
sen time and again for study, and 
that this "Jabberwocky approach," 
which relies too heavily on "light- 
weight" nonsense verse and too 
little on the classics, risks turning 
an entire generation away from 
the art form. See www.timesonline. 
co.uk/tol/life_and_style/ 
education/article3013701.ece. 

"Brothers ignore Alice in Won- 
derland Heritage," by Michael 
Connellan, describes the attempts 
of the Crawley (Surrey, U.K.) Arts 
Council to place a blue plaque on 
the spot where Kate Lemon, osten- 
sibly Tenniel's model for the Alice 
illustrations, grew up. See http:// 
icsurreyonline.icnetwork.co.uk/ 
1 00news/0200surreyheadlines/ 
tm_headline=brothers-ignore- 
alice-in-wonderland-heritage&met 
hod=full&objectid=19553208&sitei 
d=501 01-name_page.html. 

Disney continues to expand its 
presence in the luxury market, 
including Alice-branded soaps 
and clothing: "At Disney, 'Million 
Dreams' Is Not The Price Tag, But 
Close," August 20, 2007: http:// 
www.brandweek.com/bw/news/ 
recent_display.jsp?vnu_content_ 
id=l 003627923. 

James Madison, a New Jersey bank 
robber known as the Mad Hatter 
for his M.O. of wearing a different 
hat at every robbery, was captured 
on July 22, 2007: www.amw.com/ 
fugitives/capture.cfm?id=43932. 



48 



A trove of almost 1 ,000 historical 
letters found in a laundry room in 
Lausanne, Switzerland, included a 
letter by Lewis Carroll: "One filing 
cabinet held 500 years of history," 
Nigel Reynolds, The Telegraph, 
June 5, 2007, www.telegraph. 
co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/ 
news/2007/06/04/nlets04.xml. 
The letters, the property of secre- 
tive collector Albin Schram, were 
auctioned by Christies (London) 
on July 3, 2007. 

The fight over whether a mural of 
a hookah-smoking caterpillar and 
a white rabbit with a pocket watch 
must be removed from the side of 
a smoke shop in Englewood, Colo- 
rado, is so complicated that the 
ACLU has now gotten involved! 
"Suit filed over hookah mural," 
Denver Post, Felisa Cardona, July 
17, 2007, www.denverpost.com/ 
search/ci_6388594. 

"Domestic Queen, Queenly Do- 
mestic: Queenly Contradictions in 
Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass," 
Laura Mooneyham White, Chil- 
dren 's Literature Association Quar- 
terly, Summer 2007, Vol. 32, No. 2, 
discusses Alice's goal to become 
queen in respect to the growing 
public dissatisfaction with Queen 
Victoria's widowhood seclusion in 
1865. 

"Eggs and Serpents: Natural His- 
tory References in Lewis Carroll's 
Scene of Alice and the Pigeon," 
Rose Lovell-Smith, Children's Litera- 
ture, Vol. 35, 2007, compares the 
pigeon scene with natural history 
artwork and illustrations, and with 
previous commentary. 

"A Taste of Nostalgia: Children's 
Books from the Golden Age — Car- 
roll, Grahame, and Milne," Robert 
Hemmings, Children 's Literature, 
Vol. 35, 2007, demonstrates how 
nostalgia "works to cover over 
aspects of childhood distasteful to 
adult sensibilities, with only partial 
success." 



A permanent exhibition about 
Lewis Carroll is planned to fill 
a still-to-be-built extension at 
All Saints Church, Daresbury 
(U.K.). "Alice author history 
to be brought to life," This Is 
Cheshire, August 20, 2007, www. 
thisischeshire.co.uk/news/ 
runcornwidnesnews/display. 
var. 1 6380 1 5.0.alice_author_his- 
tory_to_be_brought_to_life.php. 



BOOKS & COMICS 

Oleg Lipchenko is bringing out a 
prestigious new edition of AAIW 
with beautiful and intriguing black 
and sepia illustrations. Pictures 
and full details at www.studio 
treasure.com/alice/index.html. 

In Digital Webbing's (www.digital 
webbing.com) Abigail & Rox in 
the Land of Enchantment, Abigail, a 
little girl, and her teddy bear Rox 
are sucked into a fantasy world 
where many of our most familiar 
and endearing fairy tale characters 
are at war with each other. It's an 
all-ages comic book that borrows 
several favorite figures from Alice, 
including the White Rabbit, the 
Jabberwock, and the Cheshire Cat. 

"The Fate of the Oysters: A History 
and Commentary on the Verses 
Added to Lewis Carroll's 'The Wal- 
rus and the Carpenter,'" an article 
by Matt Demakos, is included in 
the 2007 edition of Mills College's 
(Oakland, California) literary 
journal, The Walrus. The journal 
was originally named after Lewis 
Carroll's creation in 1957, and 
this 50th anniversary issue has an 
Alice theme. Matt's article is based 
on his Annotated Walrus and is the 
only nonfiction piece. The other 
Alice-related pieces include Won- 
derland photo-illustrations and 
some poems. Some pieces can be 
read at www.fanciful.net/walrus. 

Rod Espinosa's New Alice in Won- 
derland comic series from Antarctic 
Press concluded with Issue 4, and 
is collected in a paperback called 
New Alice in Wonderland Pocket 
Manga ($16) from www.antarctic 
press.com. 



The Lost Dialogues of Hamilton by 
"William Hamilton" (actually, a 
Brazilian named Marcos Melo) is 
a "novel of ideas" in dialogue form 
concerning a found diary, which 
turns out (spoiler ahead!) to be 
that of Mr. Dodgson. Hmmm. 
Wonder if it contains the famous 
missing pages. The prose is rather, 
er, eccentric. Book Surge, 2007, 
V, www.codexhamilton.com. 



Greg Hildebrandt's Magical Story 
Treasury contains his (previously 
published) adaptation of AATW 
(along with Pinocchio and The Wiz- 
ard ofOz). Courage, 2006, ISBN- 
10: 0762428376, ISBN-13: 978- 
0762428373. 

The San Francisco Public Library 
now has an Alice in Wonderland col- 
lection, part of the Effie Lee Mor- 
ris Historical and Research Collec- 
tion of Children's Literature: www. 
sfpl.org/librarylocations/main/ 
elm/alice.htm. Access to the en- 
tire collection is available only 
to library staff, but books can be 
retrieved upon request. 

The book VORACIOUS CHIL- 
DREN: Wio Eats Wfwm in Children 's 
Literature, by Carolyn Daniel, dis- 
cusses Alice in a couple of places, 
mosdy in Chapter 2, "'HAVE YOU 
BEEN A GOOD GIRL?': Manners 
and Mores at Teatime." "While 
Carroll has created a fantasy world 
where Alice can enjoy a semblance 
of fantasy flavors, he has no wish 
to make her appear to be anything 
other than innocent. By main- 
taining the opposition between 
fantastic and real foods, Carroll 
portrays Alice, wandering through 
the gardens of Wonderland, as the 
epitome of the romantic pastoral 
child and a symbol of uncorrupted 
innocence. Alice is, above all, seen 
to be a good girl. The efficacy of 
the nursery diet and its power to 
confer moral status are also up- 
held." Routledge, Taylor & Francis 
Group, New York, London, 2006. 
ISBN 0-415-97642-1. 



Chapter and Hearse and Other Myster- 
ieshy Catherine Aird (St. Martin's 
Minotaur, February 2007) is a col- 
lection of short stories. One tale, 
"Child's Play," has many Carrollian 
references, and there is one very 
funny line, when one of the char- 
acters remarks, "Fancy devoting 
your working life to studying Alice 
in Wonderland... .!" 

A new book by Kimberley Reyn- 
olds, Radical Children 's Literature: 
Future Visions and Aesthetic Transfor- 
mations in Juvenile Fiction (Palgrave 
Macmillan, 2007), discusses the 
work of Lewis Carroll in Chapter 
3, "And None of It Was Nonsense." 
Here's a sample: "...it seems quite 
possible that men like Dodgson/ 
Carroll were attracted to young 
girls at least in part because they 
were not sexually mature and 
demanding." 

Disney Comics: The Classics Collection 
Volume 1 (Disney Editions, 2006) 
reprints "Alice in Wonderland" 
(1951) and four other comics. 
Hardcover in a foil-stamped case 
with acetate jacket, $50. 

John Lithgow's poetry collection, 
The Poets' Corner: The One-and-Only 
Poetry Book for the Whole Family, 
includes "Jabberwocky." He writes 
a page of introduction to Car- 
roll and a page afterward (Grand 
Central Publishing, 2007, ISBN- 
10: 0446580023, ISBN-13: 978- 
0446580021). 

Pop-up book creator extraor- 
dinaire Robert Sabuda has some 
new Alice-related items in his on- 
line shop, including the catalog 
for a recent Japanese exhibit of his 
works: www.robertsabuda.com/ 
store/products_new.php. 

Oxford Classics: Teaching and Learn- 
ing 1800-2000, edited by Chris- 
topher Stray (Duckworth, 2008, 
ISBN-10: 0715636456, ISBN-13: 
978-0715636459), contains the 
essay "Liddell and Scott: Precur- 
sors, Nineteenth-Century Editions 
and the American Contributions" 
by August A. Imholtz, Jr. It dis- 



cusses various aspects of Dean 
Liddell's masterful Greek Lexicon, 
putting it in historical context. 

Princess Alyss of Wonderland, written 
by Frank Beddor and illustrated 
by Catia Chien, posits that Lewis 
Carroll got things wrong. Princess 
Alyss is ready to set things straight. 
Based on Beddor's The Looking 
Glass Wars, this book is enhanced 
with liftable flaps, removable let- 
ters, and diary entries from the 
"real" Alyss Heart. Dial, $19.99, 
ISBN 978-0-8037-3251-3. 

Byron Sewell and Clare Imholtz 
have compiled a bibliography of 
over 1,000 entries listing all known 
editions of Lewis Carroll's Sylvie 
and Bruno books, their translations 
into foreign languages, excerpts 
from them, appearances of their 
poems in anthologies, critical 
articles and studies, parodies, and 
more. An Annotated International 
Bibliography of Lewis Carroll's Sylvie 
and Bruno Books will be published 
jointly by Oak Knoll Press and the 
British Library in February 2008. 
The bibliography was the topic 
of Clare's talk at our fall 2006 
meeting. Oak Knoll Press (www. 
oakknoll.com) is offering a 20% 
discount to LCSNA members. 
ISBN-13: 9781584562122. 

A new version of The Hunting of 
the Snark, illustrated by Geneva 
Rosett-Hafter, is available from 
Bell Books/Ferrington Lewis 
(ISBN 978-1-898490-49-4). Posters 
and gift cards of the illustrations 
are also available: www.ferrington- 
lewis.co.uk/8201.html. 

The new double biography of 
Gladstone and Disraeli by Robert 
Aldous is titled The Lion and the 
Unicorn, and appropriately uses 
Tenniel's characters in a rather 
blurry frontispiece. Apparently 
Gladstone was personally a bit of 
a slob, while Disraeli was a notori- 
ous dandy; thus, the shaggy nu- 
dity of the myopic Lion contrasts 
with the beautifully shod, elegant 



49 



Baroque figure of the unicorn. 
Hardback: WW Norton, 2007, 
ISBN-10 0393065707, ISBN-13 978- 
0393065701; paperback: Pimlico, 
2007, ISBN-10 1844133125, ISBN- 
13 978-1844133123. 

In Six Impossible Things before 
Breakfast, Lewis Wolpert looks at 
belief's psychological basis and its 
possible evolutionary origins in 
physical cause and effect, expertly 
investigating what science can tell 
us about those concepts we are so 
sure of, and covering everything 
from everyday beliefs that give 
coherence to our experiences, to 
religious beliefs, to paranormal 
beliefs. W. W. Norton, 2007, ISBN- 
10 0393064492, ISBN-13 978- 
0393064490. 

A new bilingual English/French 
edition of Wonderland and Looking- 
Glass contains 49 illustrations by 
Pat Andrea including gouaches, 
watercolors, colored pencil and 
charcoal sketches, collages, and 
gold and silver leaf. French trans- 
lation by Henri Parisot, preface by 
Marc Lambron. Two volumes, 376 
pages, issued in a box, with a book- 
let of 24 pages containing notes by 
Jean Gattegno for the French text 
and by Hugh Haughton for the 
English. €199.50. www.dessinorigi- 
nal.com/839-Alice-in-Wonderland- 
Th rough-the-Looking-Glass . h tml . 

Disney has published a new ver- 
sion of Cinderella (August 2007), 
retold by Cynthia Rylant and illus- 
trated using Mary Blair's concept 
art (ISBN-10: 1423104218, ISBN- 
13: 978-1423104216). Editions of 
Alice in Wonderland (Fall 2008) and 
Peter Pan (Fall 2009) are to follow. 

Penguin and Vintage are mak- 
ing the latest attempt to interest 
today's younger generation in 
the last generation's books: Vin- 
tage Classic Twins promotes "the 
greatest books of ALL time paired 
with the greatest books of OUR 
time," in this case, a limited edi- 
tion bundle of Alices Adventures in 



Wonderland with Murakami's The 
Wind-Up Bird Chronicles (ISBN-13: 
9780099511403, 
www.randomhouse.co.uk/ 
vintage/vintageclassics/ twins, 
htm). Penguin, on the other hand, 
has printed a selection of clas- 
sics with no cover art at all, called 
"My Penguin editions," intending 
for the reader to personalize the 
cover. As part of the promotion, 
various musicians designed covers 
for their favorite books — a band 
called Dragonette designed a 
collage-style cover for Alice (ISBN- 
13: 9780141033440, www.penguin. 
co.uk/static/cs/uk/O/minisites/ 
mypenguin/index.html) . 

The Lewis Carroll Society (U.K.) 
has published Volume 10 of Lewis 
Carroll's Diaries, a comprehen- 
sive index to the previous nine 
volumes, compiled by Edward 
Wakeling. The index includes 
entries for people photographed, 
theatre productions attended, 
holiday locations, works pub- 
lished, contributions to mathemat- 
ics, etc. The volume also includes 
reconstructions of the two miss- 
ing volumes (1 and 3) covering 
the years 1851 to 1855. Volume 
10 is available at £30, or £21 for 
LCS members. Copies may be 
purchased at www.aznet.co.uk. 
ISBN10: 0904117340, ISBN13: 
9780904117349. 

In his autobiography, Born Stand- 
ing Up: A Comic s Life (Scribner, 
2007, ISBN-10: 1416553649, ISBN- 
13: 978-1416553649), Steve Martin 
reminisces about his development 
of comic material during his col- 
lege years, and spends several 
pages talking about Carroll's syl- 
logisms! He says, "Lewis Carroll's 
clever fancies from the nineteenth 
century expanded my notion of 
what comedy could be." 

Fushigino Kuni no Alice is "a unique 
rendition of Alice in Wonderland 
viewed through the eyes of Japa- 
nese illustrator, Sakura Kinoshita. 
A highly anime stylized work . . . 
this famous story [is] complete 



with all the anime Japan is known 
for, the large emotional eyes, 
drops of sweat when embarrassed, 
and of course the super cute il- 
lustration work. . . ." Available 
for $10.00, sample pages can be 
viewed at www.jbox.com/PROD- 
UCT/HMG942. 

In Born on a Blue Day: A Memoir, a 
candid look into "The Extraordi- 
nary Mind of an Autistic Savant," 
Daniel Tammet draws parallels 
between his life and that of Lewis 
Carroll (hardback: ISBN-10 
1416535071, paperback: ISBN- 
10 1416549013, ISBN-13 978- 
1416549017). 

A free, downloadable file of SF 
writer Cory Doctrow (Doiun and 
Out in the Magic Kingdom) reading 
Alice in Wonderland can be found at 
www.archive.org/details/. 

Comic strip Brewster Rockit had a 
week of A/^related humor from 
August 7 to 11: www.comicspage. 
com/brewster/brewster.html. See 
page 27. 

Volume 1 of the manga novel 
Gakuen Alice (Alice Academy) , 
by Tachibana Higuchi (Tokyo- 
pop, English-language copyright 
2007), is now available. The only 
Carrollian connection is a frontis- 
piece of a girl in an Alician dress 
(with diamonds and hearts along 
the hem) having tea with a stuffed 
rabbit that has a watch on a chain 
around its neck — all against a 
chessboard-like background. The 
Alice Academy is for children 
with various special powers. Both 
the children and their powers 
are referred to as "Alices," but no 
Wonderland connection is made. 
Maybe in Volume 2? 

Two new unillustrated Alices, 
have come out in recent months. 
Chatterly Press International's 
Alices Adventures in Wonderland 
(ISBN 0977716171) was designed 
by Christina Tumminello. The 
accompanying documentation 
mentions that she'd created a 



50 



complete set of illustrations for 
the text, but then decided they 
were unworthy. We hope that one 
day she will decide to share them, 
after all. Although Through the 
Looking-Glass, from Aegypan Press 
(ISBN 1598186299), has a beauti- 
ful if uncredited cover illustra- 
tion, not only are all the interior 
illustrations missing, but so are the 
asterisks in the text that delineate 
the chessboard squares! 



CYBERSPACE 

Mahendra Singh, a Montreal- 
based illustrator of over 20 years' 
experience, is drawing a graphic 
"poem" version of The Hunting 
of the Snark. The entire project 
should be 56 pages long, not in- 
cluding a planned afterword in 
which he hopes to better intro- 
duce and explain Lewis Carroll's 
verse masterpiece to a new audi- 
ence. Singh is posting the entire 
work as he finishes it on his blog: 
www.justtheplaceforasnark. 
blogspot.com, and is also provid- 
ing a running commentary of sorts 
(hopefully amusing and perhaps 
even enlightening, he notes) on 
the symbology and philosophy 
shaping his version of the Snark. 
This version is more in the Euro- 
pean than the English tradition 
of Snark illustrations, taking as it 
does a surrealist, art historical, 
and conceptual approach to the 
text. He expects to take at least 
another year to finish the project 
and hopes to eventually sell it to a 
Snarfe-minded publisher, either in 
North America or abroad. 

iTunes has a new feature, iTunesU, 
with "educational stuff on it, and 
one of the top downloads in that 
area is "Jabberwocky." It is part 
of Lit2Go: Audio Files for K-12, 
which also includes free download- 
able versions of The Game of Logic, 
Symbolic Logic, the Alice books, and 
Sylvie and Bruno. 

The homepage of the Coalition 
of Immokalee Workers (a Florida 
farmworkers' organization) has 



Tenniel's picture of Alice peek- 
ing behind the curtain, with the 
caption "Click on Alice to follow 
Burger King down the rabbit hole 
as its responses — and retractions — 
on the Campaign for Fair Food 
get 'curiouser and curiouser...'" at 
www.ciw-online.org. 

The Mad Hatters' Review (www. 
madhattersreview.com) is an on- 
line journal of "edgy and enlight- 
ened literature, art, and music in 
the age of dementia." 

All Saints Church in Daresbury 
(U.K.) now has an interactive ver- 
sion of its famous Alice in Wonder- 
land-window on its website, www. 
daresburycofe.org.uk/window/ 
Alice/index. html, allowing the 
viewer to see the individual panels 
closely. 

The Dodo Blog (www.dodo.blog. 
br) covers "the influence of dodos 
in the modern culture," as typified 
by knitted dodos, dodo children's 
toys, dodo art, and of course, 
many references to AATWand 
Lewis Carroll. 

"Alice in the World" is a coop- 
erative site where people from 
all over the world may share 
their ideas, passion, and insight 
about AATW. The wiki-based site 
promotes exchanges about Alice, 
in particular different versions 
(e.g., comedies, movies, parodies, 
songs) , both in English and in 
other languages: http://wonder- 
land.wik.is/. 

Alice in Wonderland syndrome 
(AIWS), or micropsia, is a disori- 
enting neurological condition that 
affects visual perception. Persons 
with AIWS perceive objects as sub- 
stantially smaller than in reality. 
The condition is perceptual only; 
the mechanics of the eye are not 
affected. Recently listed as number 
seven of the ten weirdest diseases 
in the world on the Healthy Liv- 
ing Blog (www.health-sky.com/ 
html/ 10-weirdest-diseases.html), 
and featured on ABC news ("Size 
Matters: Living in a Lewis Carroll 



'Wonderland'": http://abcnews. 
go.com/Primetime/story?id=3581 
479&page=l), the topic generated 
so much interest that it registered 
as Google's second hottest trend 
on September 19 (www.google. 
com/trends/hottrends?q=alice+in 
+wonderland+syndrome&date=20 
07-9-19&sa=X). 

"Nice to meets you!" A picture 
posted at the "I can has cheez- 
burger" website shows a cat ap- 
parently shaking hands with a 
crawfish. Viewer comments about 
the picture not only include many 
Alice references, but also the words 
to "The Lobster Quadrille" written 
in LOLspeak (also known as cat 
argot): www.icanhascheezburger. 
com/2007/ 1 2/ 1 2/nice-to-meets- 
you. 

Amusing anagrams of the first 
stanza of "Jabberwocky" can be 
read at www.anagrammy.com/liter- 
ary/various/poems-jabber.html. 
The challenge was to keep the 
anagrams to the original meter 
and rhyme as much as possible. 

www.1010-asia.com is "a digital 
adaptation of self discovery" in- 
spired by AATW. "It is a fantasy trail 
that allows one to wander down 
the Rabbit Hole, explore the hid- 
den facts, and unravel the myths 
underneath. Treated through ani- 
mated characters, the portal dem- 
onstrates. ..the strong combination 
of creative and strategic capabili- 
ties and expertise" of 141 Sercon, 
a brand development company. 

A podcast of Columbia Work- 
shop's TTLG, which was adapted 
by William N. Robeson, and origi- 
nally aired on the CBS Radio Net- 
work in 1937, can be downloaded 
for free at www.oldtimeradio 
nostalgia.podomatic.com/entry/ 
2007-09-1 6T 17 57 46-07 00. 



m 

MOVIES ^TELEVISION 

According to The Hollyivood Re- 
porter (www.hollywoodreporter. 
com, November 1, 2007), "Alan 
dimming and Rebecca Romijn 



51 



will ... play adversaries Matt Hatter 
and Alice Allyson in 'Hatter,' based 
on the Mad Tea Party scene from 
Alice in Wonderland from U.K. -based 
production company PureFilm. 
dimming, who is producing the 
project with writers James Killough 
and Angad Paul, will play a hedo- 
nistic fashion designer. Romijn will 
play a journalist who knows about 
his shady past. Production is sched- 
uled to begin in spring 2008." 

Subversive Cinema (www.subver 
sivecinema.com) released a new 
DVD version of one of the highest- 
grossing adult movies of all time, 
Alice in Wonderland (1976). Former 
Playboy model and future soap 
star Kristine DeBell plays the nu- 
bile, sexually inexperienced Alice, 
who enters a strange new world of 
erotica in this "adults only" ver- 
sion. This special edition of pro- 
ducer Bill Osco's titillating romp 
contains three different versions 
of the film: an "R-Rated," an 'X- 
Rated," and an "XXX-Rated" cut 
with hardcore footage. Terri Hall, 
Juliet Graham, and Larry Gelman 
also star. There is also a "making 
of featurette including interviews 
with adult film guru Bill Margold 
and feminist critic/adult actress 
Lena Ramon, cast and crew bios, 
and a free bonus soundtrack CD 
(we're hoping it's just music). 

Jabberwocky and protein synthe- 
sis, what could be more natural? 
See a very "70s" blast-from-the- 
past film about, yes, protein 
synthesis at www.youtube.com/ 
watch?v=u9dhO0iCLww. (Is this 
really happening millions of times 
per second in our bodies? Cool!) 
It begins with a short introduction 
by Paul Berg (1980 Nobel Prize), 
so hang in there for at least four 
minutes to see the beginning of 
the actual film and the Jabber- 
wocky connection. 

Director Tim Burton, who will 
helm a new film adaptation of Al- 
ice's Adventures in Wonderland, said 
that he will stay true to the story's 
essence. "It's just such a classic, 
and the imagery is so surreal. I 



don't know; I've never seen a ver- 
sion where I feel like they got it all. 
It's a series of weird adventures, 
and to try to do it where it works 
as a movie will be interesting. The 
stories are like drugs for children, 
you know? It's like, 'Whoa, man.' 
The imagery, they've never quite 
nailed making it compelling as a 
full story. So I think it's an interest- 
ing challenge to direct." Working 
from a script by Linda Woolverton 
(see KI, 78) , Burton will also pro- 
duce the adaptation, which will 
use both live action and perform- 
ance-capture animation. Filming is 
set to begin in early 2008. 

In conjunction with the book SHU 
Moving: The Film and Media Collec- 
tions of The Museum of Modern Art, 
the Museum presents a regular 
series featuring works that have 
been acquired and preserved by 
MoMA over the last seven decades. 
On January 2, 11, and 17, Alice in 
Wonderland will be shown (1948, 
Great Britain/France. Directed 
by Lou Bunin, Dallas Bower, with 
screenplay by Henry Myers, Albert 
Lewin, Edward Eliscu. With Carol 
Marsh, Stephen Murray, Pamela 
Brown. Restored with funding 
from the Celeste Bartos Film Pres- 
ervation Fund. 96 minutes). See 
www.moma.org/exhibitions/film_ 
exhibitions.php?id=2462. 

The entire working script of 
Disney's Alice in Wonderland can be 
viewed at http://afilmla.blogspot. 
com/search/label/Alice. 

As did the CIA novel by Robert 
Littell (KL 69 and 71) upon which 
it is based, TNT's miniseries The 
Company (air dates August 5, 12, 
and 19, 2007) makes several refer- 
ences to the Alice books: www.tnt. 
tv/series/thecompany. 

Currently in production, Phoebe in 
Wonderland stars Elle Fanning as 
a rebellious little girl who clashes 
with the rule-obsessed author- 
ity figures in her life. She seeks 
enlightenment from her uncon- 
ventional drama teacher (Patricia 
Clarkson). Bill Pullman and Felic- 



ity Huffman co-star. Some photos 
can be viewed at http://justjared. 
buzznet.com/2007/05/30/ 
phoebe-in-wonderland/. 

Season 8 of CBS's Big Brother re- 
ality show had an AA/W theme, 
including poetry-spouting white 
rabbits: www.cbs.com/primetime/ 
bigbrother8. 

Animation company BKN's Alice 
in Wonderland: What 's the Matter 
with Hatter? is "a brand new CGI 
animated, all-animal feature film 
version of Alice's adventures." This 
is apparently only available in the 
U.K., but a sample of the video 
can be viewed at www.bknkids. 
com/alice.shtml. 



MUSIC 

Patti Smith and friends performed 
works of Hans Christian Andersen, 
William Blake, Lewis Carroll, A. A. 
Milne, Rudyard Kipling, and Rob- 
ert Louis Stevenson at the Met- 
ropolitan Museum of Art in New 
York City on January 18, 2008. 

The First EP by the band Garden- 
ing, Not Architecture, includes the 
song "Jabberwocky": www.garden 
ingnotarchitecture.com. 

Marilyn Manson's latest album 
is titled Eat Me, Drink Me and in- 
cludes the song "Are You the Rab- 
bit?" Samples can be heard at www. 
amazon.com and on iTunes. 



«g 

PERFORMING ARTS 

This fall brought a Wonderland 
of puppets to HERE Arts Center's 
(www.here.org) Dorothy B. Wil- 
liams Theater, September 19 
through October 7, 2007. When 
the audience first entered the 
building, they were enticed "down 
the rabbit hole" and into an ex- 
hibit of Alice-inspired puppets. 
The headlining shows were Drama 
of Works's (www.dramaofworks. 
com) Curiouser and Curiouser (see 
page 43) and Toronto's Stranger 
Theatre's (www.strangertheatre. 
ca) And What Alice Found There. 
The latter production examines 



52 



how "Alice Liddell's journey 
through Victorian times mirrors 
Alice in Wonderland's journey 
through the hallucinatory land- 
scape of her author's imagination, 
where nothing is as it seems." The 
work is "a collaboration by an 
all-female group of performers, 
puppeteers, and video artists... 
to create a multi-media theatrical 
adventure using physical theater, 
puppetry, slide images, video, 
stop-motion animation, and a little 
tap dancing." In addition, Maria 
Bodmann of Bali & Beyond (KL 
59 and 73) showed a video, gave a 
puppet demonstration, and an- 
swered questions about her Alice 
in the Shadows. There were free 
movie screenings throughout the 
festival, other special events and 
guests, and yes, a tea party after 
each show! 

Moving Arts Dance (MAD) Cen- 
ter's (www.movingartsdance.org/ 
upcoming. shtml#madhatter) MAD 
Hatter Performance and Tea Party 
took place November 30 to De- 
cember 2, 2007. The publicity de- 
scribed it as follows: "A delightfully 
absurd adventure as Alice's grand- 
daughter Allyson ventures into the 
now Gothic Wonderland! Allyson 
shrinks and grows with magical 
dance effects, a four armed cater- 
pillar morphs into a 'butterflairie,' 
the MAD Hatter and Allyson share 
an inventive, athletic duet, and the 
Snow Pas de Deux from the Nut- 
cracker is performed by the MAD 
Hatter and the Queen of Hearts. 
Clever plot twists unfold when the 
Formerly White Rabbit (Devon 
LaRussa) feigns death and her real 
life father (guest performer Tony 
LaRussa) pays a visit as the Grim 
Reaper Rabbit." 

The world premiere of Alice in 
Wonderland by Peter Westergard, a 
co-production of the Center for 
Contemporary Opera and the 
Princeton University Music De- 
partment, will be performed on 
May 22, 2008, at Princeton Univer- 
sity and on June 3 and 4, 2008, at 
Symphony Space in New York: 
www.conopera.org. 



August's Edinburgh (Scotland) 
Fringe Festival featured two Alice- 
related performances. The first, 
the HWS Rembiko Project's Ele- 
ments of Style, was reviewed in The 
Scotsman: "A slick amalgamation of 
Alice in Wonderland and EB White's 
Elements of Style tome, this simple, 
colourful piece follows Alice as she 
struggles with writing her essay. 
The world of words has never 
been so interesting — or indeed 
amusing — as our young heroine is 
led through a mysterious land 
filled with nouns, adjectives and 
passive tenses. While utterly daft in 
concept, innovative set pieces and 
some quirky performances from 
an ensemble cast make this sur- 
prisingly addictive viewing." (See 
www.living.scotsman.com/View- 
Article .aspx?articleid=33 18787.) 

The second production was 
reviewed by The Guardian: "Co- 
medians Phill Jupitus and Andre 
Vincent are forever being mis- 
taken for one another. So it is a 
perfectly logical step (in the Lewis 
Carroll sense) to stage a play, Wait- 
ing for Alice in which they alternate 
the roles of Tweedledum and 
Tweedledee for each performance. 
The upshot is an entertaining con- 
fection clearly derived from Wait- 
ing for Godot and Rosencrantz and 
Guildenstern Are Dead. Jupitus and 
Vincent's Dum and Dee are the 
seekers in all of us, questioning 
the point of their endless wait for 
Alice, wondering if she will ever 
turn up again." (See http://arts. 
guardian.co.uk/edinburgh2007/ 
story/0„2146362,00.html.) 

Not to be outdone (or outgrabed), 
Pittsburgh's Dance Alloy Theater 
will present Feed Your Head Cafe 
from March 28 to April 13, 2008: 
"A bit Alice In Wonderland, a bit 
Through the Looking Glass, a little 
bit Alice Doesn 't Live Here Anymore, 
and a little bit "Alice's Restaurant," 
a bit Hollywood, a bit Off-Broad- 
way; definitely surreal." Tickets 
and further information at www. 
dancealloy.org/performance.html. 
Following that, April 17 to 20, will 
be the North American premiere 
of the ballet Alice in Wonderland, 



performed by the Pittsburgh Bal- 
let Theatre: www.pbt.org/ 
performances/alice.php. 

And naturally, Los Angeles had to 
upstage both 'burghs by present- 
ing three Alices last summer. The 
Troubadour Theater Company's 
Alice in One-Hit Wonderland, July 13 
to August 26, 2007, sent our hero- 
ine down the rabbit hole with "a 
riotous slew of Top 40 oddities" 
(www.troubie.com/public/past/ 
alice_othelo.htm). The "ultra edgy 
musical" Alice in Wonderland Thru 
the Looking Glass from Zombie 
Joe's Underground, August 10 to 
September 8, 2007, upheld "the 
garage-absurdist ethic without 
quite raising the bar." The Blue 13 
Dance Company's PAHELLYAN: the 
Story of Alice, August 24 and 25, was 
a Bollywood-style dance and music 
spectacular. Clips of the perfor- 
mance can be seen at www.bright- 
cove.tv/title.jsp?title=l 15510691 1 
&channel=27585098&lineup=4334 
80770. 

Meanwhile, in New York, "On July 
15, 2007, the guerrilla-art group 
The House of Malcontents struck 
again in Central Park . . . trans- 
forming Cherry Hill into a scene 
from Alice in Wonderland, complete 
with croquet and Lewis Carroll- 
themed works from a dozen local 
artists." See www.nymag.com/ 
daily/intel/2007/07/alice.html. 

From May 17 to 31, 2008, the Vic- 
torian Opera and Malthouse The- 
atre of Melbourne, Australia, will 
present Through the Looking Glass, 
"a very special treatment by com- 
poser Alan John, librettist Andrew 
Upton, and a cast of superb sing- 
ers ready to journey well beyond 
the limits of conventional opera. 
Carroll and his peers play out the 
story in their Victorian drawing- 
room but, as in the story they 
enact, the boundaries of reality 
and fantasy, playfulness and truth, 
are soon revealed as shimmering 
phantoms liable to dissipate in a 
breath." See www.victorianopera. 
com.au/www/html/141-through- 
the-looking-glass— 1 7-to-31-may. 

asp?intSiteID=l. 

53 



Alison in Wonderland premiered 
June 8 to 24, 2007, at the Everett 
Theatre in Everett, Washington. It 
tells the story of Alison Fowler, a 
49-year-old homemaker with a 
workaholic husband, a 15-year-old 
daughter, elderly parents, and a 
beloved aunt with Alzheimer's, 
who suddenly finds herself sur- 
rounded by Lewis Carroll's charac- 
ters as she tries to cope. See 
http://seattletimes.nwsource. 
com/html/snohomishcounty 
news/2003735402_alison06n.html. 

The West Coast premiere of vocal- 
ist and composer Susan Botti's 
"Jabberwocky" was part of the Los 
Angeles Philharmonic New Music 
Group's Green Umbrella program 
on December 4, 2007. For the 
piece, the soprano covered the top 
of her head and face with a black 
mask so that only her mouth was 
visible, and was accompanied only 
by a percussionist. See www.laphil. 
com/music/piece_detail. 
cfm?id=2415&bc=l. 



wm. 
EVENTS ^PLACES 

As part of Oxfordshire county's 
millennium celebrations, Oxford 
celebrated "Alice Day" on July 7. 
With activities including a walking 
trail and river trip, performances, 
readings, storytelling, exhibitions 
and lectures, music, films, food, 
and games, Alice Day commemo- 
rated the first telling of the AAIW 
story by Lewis Carroll to Alice Lid- 
dell and her sisters. Christchurch 
Library, the Bodleian Library, the 
University Museums of Natural 
History and Science, the Mu- 
seum of Oxford, the Ashmolean 
Museum, and Oxford University 
Press displayed rare first editions, 
original manuscripts, printing 
plates, photographs, and many of 
Lewis Carroll's and Alice Liddell's 
personal items. Other activities 
included a croquet match on 
stilts (!) and a mad tea party with 
a "walking table": www.storymu- 
seum.org.uk/alice/. 



Derbyshire tree artist Andrew Frost 
has transformed a 30-foot tree 
stump in Rugby's Whinfield Rec- 
reation Ground into a storytelling 
tree as a part of Rugby's Britain in 
Bloom entry. All the carvings on 
the tree are based on AA/W Lewis 
Carroll, of course, was a student 
at Rugby School. The ash tree 
stump has stood on the recreation 
ground for a number of years and 
will now form a storytelling area 
where parents and children can 
sit, using their own imaginations 
to interpret the carved figures into 
stories of their own. 

In the Rhone Valley this summer 
was an exhibition entitled "Gar- 
dens and Wonders: The Mirror of 
Alice" ("Jardins et merveilles: Le 
miroir d 'Alice") and staged at the 
Chateau de Chenonceau in the 
Domaine Lacroix-Laval. The 
Rhone Chess Federation, in coop- 
eration with the management of 
the chateau, created a 64-square- 
meter chess board with giant mir- 
rors that depicted chess games 
and scenes from TTLG. There 
were also a chess philately exhibi- 
tion, marble chess sets on the 
grounds for members of the pub- 
lic to play with, an art exhibit, 
garden plantings and workshops, 
literary lectures and readings, 
concerts and film showings, and, 
of course, tea parties: www.echecs 
histoire-litterature.com/photos_ 
semaine3.html, www.lacroix-laval. 
com/archives/arch_miroir.htm, 
and www.chenonceau.com. 

The 14 th Annual Alice in Wonder- 
land Festival and Mad Tea Party of 
Vancouver, British Columbia, took 
place on July 15, 2007, at Trout 
Lake Park. The public was invited 
to attend costumed as any Alice 
character, and in addition to the 
tea party, could participate in a 
"mad croquet rally" or a caucus 
race, meet Queen Victoria, and 
dance the lobster quadrille: www. 
communityartsworkshop.com/ 
teaparty.html. 



Although "Jabberwocky" was 
the most nominated poem for 
"Edmonton's Favorite Poem" at 
the Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) 
Poetry Festival, September 17 to 
23, 2007, the winner was "The 
Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," 
by T S. Eliot: www.edmonton 
poetryfestival.com/favourite 
poemcontest.asp. 

Children's Wonderland park in 
Vallejo, California, re-opened on 
September 22 after a $2.5 million 
restoration. Original features such 
as a giant Alice teapot and Cinder- 
ella's carriage now have been 
joined by twirling teacups, a dino- 
land sandbox, and an "interactive" 
pebbled brook: www.gvrd.org/ 
childrenswonderland.html. 

This year's Key West Annual Fan- 
tasy Fest (October 19 to 28, 2007) 
was themed "Gnomes, Toads, and 
White Rabbit Tea Parties," with a 
strong Wonderland element to the 
festivities. A nice poster and pho- 
tos can be found at www.fantasy 
fest.net. 

Among the winners of the 
Bodleian Library's Millennium 
Myths and Monsters design-a- 
gargoyle competition are 11- 
year-old George O'Connor for 
"Dodo" and 13-year-old Eva Mas- 
manian for "Tweedledum and 
Tweedledee." Another of the win- 
ners was Hannah Duckworth; any 
relation? They will see their de- 
signs transformed by a stonemason 
who will create nine new gargoyles 
that will grace the northwest face 
of the Bodleian Library for years 
to come. The competition for 
schoolchildren was launched to 
find ideas based on one of three 
themes — myths, monsters, or 
people — that have a historical 
connection with Oxfordshire dat- 
ing within the last millennium. 
The university has to replace the 
original gargoyles because they are 
extensively damaged and there are 
no records of what they originally 
looked like. The other winning 
designs include a green man, 



54 



"three men in a boat," Sir Thomas 
Bodley, and Asian. Wantage MP 
and Shadow Arts Minister Ed 
Vaizey stated, "I don't think there 
will be another chance for hun- 
dreds of years for anyone else to 
design a gargoyle for the Bodleian 
and ... their great-great grand- 
children will be coming to the 
Bodleian to see the gargoyles that 
their ancestors designed." And 
Carrollians will have yet another 
reason to visit the Bodleian! 

LCSNA member Barbara Mall will 
be exhibiting items from her Lewis 
Carroll collection at the Howard 
County Central Library (www. 
hclibrary.org/locations/central. 
php) in Columbia, Maryland, in 
April 2008. 

"The Afterlife of Alice in Wonder- 
land," a University of Florida's 
Special Collections exhibit at the 
Baldwin Library of Historical Chil- 
dren's Literature from October 15 
to December 15, 2007, traced the 
continued presence of the text 
and images of the Alice books in 
American and British culture, by 
presenting a variety of editions, 
illustrators, media, and artifacts, 
and showcasing the 1969 portfolio 
edition illustrated by Salvador 
Dali. A large amount of informa- 
tion on the exhibit is available 
online at www.uflib.ufl.edu/ 
UFDC/UFDC.aspx?s=alice. 



m 

THINGS 

The cover of the 2008 Tori Amos 
RAINN (Rape, Abuse & Incest 
National Network) Benefit Calen- 
dar has a painting of the singer 
as Alice, along with a white rabbit 
and hookah-smoking caterpillar. 
$17.50 plus shipping: http://store. 
rainn.org/product.cfm?pid=15. 

The Royal Mail (U.K.) has issued 
two stamps of interest to 



Carrollians. Helen Oxenbury's 
White Rabbit (42 p) is part of a 
2006 series commemorating chil- 
dren's books (www.royalmail.com/ 
portal/rm/jump2?catld=22900465 
&mediald=22900490). The album 
cover of Sergeant Pepper's Lonely 
Hearts Club Band (First Class) , part 
of a Beatles series issued January 
2007, shows Dodgson — the only 
time he has ever appeared on a 
British stamp — as a small, black- 
and-white image just by the 
Queen's neck. As we all know, the 
album cover was designed by Peter 
Blake and Graham Ovenden 
(www.royalmail.com/portal/ 
stamps/jumpl?catld=32300673& 
mediald=42300684). 

The cover of the Reading Woman 
calendar for 2008 (www.pome 
granatecommunications.com/ 
z416.html) shows George Dunlop 
Leslie's painting, called "Alice in 
Wonderland," of a woman reading 
to her child (KL 76:36). The origi- 
nal is at the Brighton Art Museum 
(www.virtualmuseum.info/collec- 
tions/object.asp?categoryid=6&ro 
w=0&ckid=45952). 

Barbie, Gwen Stefani, or Blythe? 
You now have a choice of "fashion" 
dolls in Alice outfits. Barbie comes 
with the Cheshire Cat, and the 
Red Queen (with flamingo) and 
the Mad Hatter are also available: 
www.barbiecollector.com/shop/ 
product. aspx?sku=L5849. Based 
on the costume Gwen wore in the 
"What You Waiting For?" video, 
the "Tick Tock Gwen" doll features 
a "Super Cool Pocket Mirror fea- 
turing Gwen's Clock," collectible 
poster and trading card, and a 
crown, scepter, cape, rabbit, and 
crest hair brush: www.amazon. 
com/Gwen-Stefani-Tick-Tock/dp/ 
B000H2X7ZQ. Last but not least, 
you can also get AZw#-inspired 
outfits for your 12-inch Blythe 
doll: www.dreamsavertoys.com/ 
bwsclothes.html. 

Alice-re\a.ted bookplates can be 
seen at the blog Confessions of a 
Bookplate Junkie: www.bookplate- 



junkie.blogspot.com/2007/06/ 
george-w-in-wonderland.html. 

Blue Barnhouse letterpress studio 
has a line of greeting cards (some 
rather grown up) using the 
Tenniel illustrations: www.blue- 
barnhousestore.org, click on 
"Apology," "Drug Culture," and 
"Funny/Novelty." 

More Disney "stuff! Judith Lieber 
purses encrusted with Swarovski 
crystals now come in Alice and 
Cheshire Cat designs: www.lasveg- 
asvegas.com/2007/02/flipchip_ 
shops_the_wynn_resort.php. And 
to complete the look, get AATWlip 
gloss and nail polish in such colors 
as "Tea Cake" and "Hookah" from 
Goldie cosmetics: www.bathand- 
bodyworks.com/family/index.jsp? 
categoryld=2482592&cp=2083078. 

Mice in Wonderland? While these 
Wee Forest Folk were only avail- 
able this past fall, they probably 
can still be found on eBay: www. 
weeforestfolk.com/aliceandoz. 
html. 

A teacup and saucer set by Japa- 
nese designer Shinzi Katoh tells 
the AA/Wstory through its delicate 
and simple line drawings: 
www.threepotatofourshop.com/ 
product_info.php?products_ 
id=201. 

San Francisco artist Jan Padover 
(www.janpadover.com) has pro- 
duced a simply superb deck of 
bridge-size playing cards, each 
with a different colored Tenniel 
illustration (or detail) and quote 
from one of the Alice books. Artis- 
tically rendered and definitely 
recommended; only $8 (including 
postage) from www.prosperoart. 
com or send a check (specifying 
that the order is for the Alice deck) 
made out to Prospero Art to 198A 
East Blithedale Ave., Mill Valley, 
CA 94941. 



55